Truth & Journalism in Elections – Homelessness – Carbon Taxes – Sustainable Living– Global Rosary


Truth & Journalism in Elections – Homelessness – Carbon Taxes – Sustainable Living – Global Rosary

December 2023

In Good Conscience

The goal of our newsletter is to help readers become familiar with current events and help them practice relating those events to Catholic social teaching, in order to help them to properly form their consciences.  We are not trying to promote specific social decisions or to stir up controversy.   If we say something that upsets you, don’t blast us, help us understand your point of view.

Our Newsletter – a means to invite reflection.

Readers will have noticed that the content and format of our newsletter has evolved over the past several years.  We like to think it’s headed in a good direction:  in addition to the kinds of announcements and events one normally expects in a newsletter, we are trying to develop a new Catholic form of educational news commentary.  Within each issue we strive to present several items of social concern, drawn from the full range of issues faced by society, by setting down one or two alternate points of view, a summary of relevant Catholic teachings, and a few questions to promote reflection.

Our goal is not only to help readers become familiar with current events, but to help them practice relating those events to Catholic social teaching, in order to help them in forming their own individual consciences properly.  Each Catholic should form his or her own views by reading, staying engaged with society, and praying constantly.  We should never blindly follow others or apply rules inconsistent with our faith.  Within the fair bounds of Catholic social teaching there remains ample room for healthy disagreement, dialog, and growth.

So if you should happen to read something here that angers or upsets you, before you turn off your computer and shoot an angry email at us, please sit back and ask yourself: should I be angry or upset?  Is this item I’m reading inappropriate advocacy, or an invitation to reflect within fair Catholic bounds?   We are trying to help you, not stir up controversy. Catholic Conscience will never intentionally attempt to persuade any person toward any specific resolution of a social issue.  We aim simply to introduce the fair bounds of our Church’ social doctrine and promote new ways of asking questions and seeking answers.

Don’t get mad, join the talk!  Write us at, tell us how we can improve.  Share your thoughts so we can all learn.

New Global Rosary Crusade

Catholic Conscience is not a large organization, but thanks to you it has grown into an established, credible initiative with a truly global reach.  Our online resources now reach approximately 40,000 readers per year, including what appear to be regular followers in approximately 100 countries.  A significant portion of you seem to want to be more engaged.  We think it’s time we got together, at least online, and started getting to know one another.   What better way could there be, than to start by praying?

On Monday, January 1, Catholic Conscience will launch its global Rosary crusade for civic leaders and civic participation.  Normally we’ll pray on Wednesdays.  We’re starting with Monday, January 1, however, to coincide our launch with the World Day of Peace and the Solemnity of our Patroness Mary, the Mother of God, placing our hopes for peace and justice in the Blessed Mother’s loving hands.

There is no cost, of course, but in this uncertain and challenging time for the Church, we ask you to register at www.CatholicConscience/Rosary/

Better Late than Never:  Our 2022 Annual Report

We continue learning, and building a regular annual calendar to do things like thank our generous donors and them, and our readers and collaborators, how we’re doing.  So here at last is our annual report for 2022.  Though it’s late, it’s also positive:  2022 was a year of definite growth, reaching more voters, more activists, more classes, and – thank you! – more donors. We continued to learn, and to apply lessons to continued fine-tuning of our outreach. We received our first intercontinental inquiries, worked hard to adapt, and won our second national journalism award.

It’s clear that many people in many countries want to see increased respect, deeper justice, and a renewed political focus on the common good and its primary object: the authentic development of human souls.  We will continue trying to feed that hunger.


Of Common Interest

We cannot leave the problem of ensuring that future generations have everything they need to thrive entirely to our governments.  We have to do what we can in our own lives, too.  But in a complex and competitive world, what can we do?

Care for the Environment – Living Sustainably

What can we, as individuals, do to help preserve our environment?

We live in a time of ecological crisis – a crisis now widely believed to present a threat to all life, including human life, and to which each of us has to a greater or lesser extent contributed.  Every Pope since at least Saint John XXIII has warned us of the need to do better in caring for our planet, for the benefit of future generations as well as our brothers and sisters in other parts of the world, and ourselves.  The cry has become desperate.

Citizens have worked for years to spur their governments to action.  Many governments have responded, some more promptly than others.  But while the need for action is generally accepted, opinions can vary widely when specifics are discussed.  Is enough being done, or have we, the voters, failed to communicate a clear, resolute message to our elected leaders?  In the interim can we, should we, as individuals, be making any contribution?  If so, how can we help?

Catholic principles of subsidiarity, solidarity, and responsibility  – which can trace their roots to the Parable of the Talents in the Gospel of Matthew – suggest that individuals are obliged to do everything we can, personally as well as through our governance structures, by example, exhortation and voting.

In his encyclical Laudato si’, Pope Francis said:

A very solid scientific consensus indicates that we are presently witnessing a disturbing warming of the climatic system. In recent decades this warming has been accompanied by a constant rise in the sea level and, it would appear, by an increase of extreme weather events, even if a scientifically determinable cause cannot be assigned to each particular phenomenon. Humanity is called to recognize the need for changes of lifestyle, production and consumption, in order to combat this warming or at least the human causes which produce or aggravate it. It is true that there are other factors (such as volcanic activity, variations in the earth’s orbit and axis, the solar cycle), yet a number of scientific studies indicate that most global warming in recent decades is due to the great concentration of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides and others) released mainly as a result of human activity. – Laudato si’, Para. 23

 What sorts of things can we try as individuals?

Living a truly sustainable modern life is a very difficult, very complex task.  In some cases it may be impossible.  Everything we buy, use, or consume comes at some environmental cost, and it can difficult or impossible to determine how much damage any proposed action or a purchase might cause.  Purchasing anything that was not produced, formed, and acquired entirely within arm’s reach, for example, must be transported, generally multiple times.  And transportation inevitably causes environmental harm – even walking requires shoes and clothing which require cleaning and maintenance, and eventually wear out.

Battery-powered vehicles serve another example.  On balance, they are quite possibly less harmful than gasoline-powered vehicles.  Yet they too come with significant environmental costs: material for the vehicles must be mined, formed, joined, painted, and delivered, including structural parts, motors, tires, seats, and of course batteries.  Batteries typically contain hundreds of pounds of poisonous chemicals which are not easily recycled once the battery has worn out.

It must also be remembered that recycling processes – all of them – come with environmental costs, in the form of energy consumption, purification, and re-processing into new useful forms, in addition to both collection and redistribution.

The old advice of “reduce, reuse, recycle” still holds.  Reducing consumption is the surest way to contribute, reusing things which may require cleaning and/or refurbishment is second, and recycling is third – and still ahead of simple disposal.

It can also be difficult or impossible to cut through advertising and other claims of “green” or “environmentally beneficial” products.  How do we know that products with such labels really are produced, packaged, and distributed in environmentally-friendly ways?

In such circumstances, how can we possibly proceed?

  • Pray for guidance, and act prudently!

    For Catholics the first step must be prayer. In particular, contemplating such complex questions, we should pray for guidance.

    Prudence is important too.  We are called by Christ both to act prudently and to try our best.  (See for example Matthew 25).  Even when we have little control, we should control what we can as wisely as we can, and pray about the rest. It’s not all up to us, we have to turn to God, too.  Remember the miracles of the loaves and fishes – Christ multiplies small devout offerings manifold.  If we do what we can, and pray, he will help.  (Matthew Chapters 14,15; Mark Chapters 6,8; Luke Chapter 9; John Chapter 6.)

  • Educate yourself, and monitor new developments

    We must educate ourselves, and keep ourselves educated, keeping up with the latest and best practices and trying to choose wisely. Much attention is being given to the idea of helping individuals live in greater harmony with the earth, and tools for doing so are developing rapidly.  We have listed a few examples below.  We should pray, look for helpful tools, and try the ones that look most useful to us in our circumstances.

  • Start practicing better habits
    One we’ve found the tool(s) that make sense, let’s try them out and try to live a more eco-friendly lives.
  • Keep praying
    Keep praying for yourself, your family, your neighbors, your government(s), and the world. Remind the Lord of the miracles he has worked for those in need who have asked.

Sample resources

Here are some examples of online resources that may be helpful to you.  Please note:  we have not exhaustively investigated these resources, and do not endorse them for any specific purposes other than inspiration and investigation.  Please investigate before using – and let us know if you see any concerns or have any further suggestions.  For us, this is an ongoing project.  We can use your help.

  • The Laudato si’ Catholic environmental movement maintains a web page with advice and links to resources to help you simplify your life and learn sobriety in the use of resources and energy.
  • The Catholic University of America offers tips for reducing or eliminating the use of trash requiring landfills or incinerators.
  • The Environmental Working Group offers Eat Well Guides to help you find restaurants, farms, and markets near you for locally-sourced, sustainable food products in selected American cities.
  • Learn about your personal emissions footprint, and learn to live within it
    As quoted above, in calling for action to end non-sustainable activities, Pope Francis wrote in Laudato si’ that “most global warming in recent decades is due to the great concentration of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides and others) released mainly as a result of human activity.”

    In recent decades, proposals have been made  for identifying each human being’s fair share of greenhouse gas production, and encouraging individuals abide by that allotment.  A 2021 report by the Hot or Cool Institute,  a not-for-profit said to be driven by principles of well-being and prosperity, fairness and justice, and living within ecological limits, and associated with the Club of Rome, the Institute for European Environmental Policy, and others, suggests that individuals should be making choices that result in no more than 2.5 tons of Carbon per person by 2030, and 0.7 tons by 2050 if the 1.5 degree cap suggested by the United Nations and most scientists is to be met.  Currently, North American emissions are closer to 13 tons per person, compared to 8.5 tons in the UK, 5 tons for China, and 3 tons for India.    No country on earth, the report states, is currently living within sustainable goals.

    To help us learn to live within our limits, several organizations are developing interactive online calculators to help us monitor our release of greenhouse gasses.  One such calculator is provided by the Nature Conservancy at

  • Stay engaged, and vote
    Finally, we should all be staying engaged with our elected representatives, keeping ourselves informed about party policies, proposed government policies, and the performance of our governments, and voting.

In many parts of the world, the COVID-19 pandemic has left an alarming legacy of homelessness.  Is homelessness important?  Who’s responsible for addressing it?  In a complex and competitive world, what can we as individuals do?

Solidarity, Human Rights, and Subsidiarity:  homelessness after COVID-10

Tents are seen setup underneath the Torontos Gardiner Expressway as Homeless Camp in this photo dated October 24 2023 Photo Catholic Conscience

Many of us in different cities around the world have noticed what appears to be a marked increase in the level of homelessness following the COVID pandemic.  Reports from multiple jurisdictions suggest we’re not wrong.  A report from Australia’s University of New South Wales  , for example, notes that homelessness is increasing while promises made during the pandemic of “building back better” are not being realized.  The Associated Press reported on December 15  that homelessness in the United States has surged a “dramatic” 12% to its highest reported levels, at least in part due to soaring rents and a decline in temporary assistance provided during the pandemic.  Increased homelessness levels were also reported in Europe, by the UK’s The Guardian.

Homelessness is said to be one of the most durable and complex problems known to humankind.  Observers have defined several different varieties , including:

  • living on the streets, also known as sleeping rough or primary homelessness
  • moving between temporary shelters, including houses of friends, family, and emergency accommodation, also “couch surfing” or secondary homelessness
  • living in boarding houses without a private bathroom or security of tenure, or tertiary homelessness

Homelessness has many causes, including mental, physical, social, and spiritual health, unemployment, and the cost and availability of housing.   As with many human challenges, solutions within most cultures will require both definition of appropriate and workable goals, and a large variety of solutions.  One single solution will seldom work for everyone.

The Church includes housing among a list of human rights fundamental to the authentic development of persons, emphasizing the State’s responsibility to provide it in ways sufficient to meet that purpose.  But the Church does not look solely to the state.  Rather, given the importance of housing, the Church emphasizes the responsibility of all members and levels of society in ensuring that humans have what they need for true growth.   (Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, 166, 167).

The responsibility of all elements of society to provide adequate housing offers a dramatic illustration of the relationship between the principles of solidarity and subsidiarity, worthy of sober reflection.

Catholics bear responsibility both as individuals and as a Church.  During the pandemic, many dioceses and parishes took direct action.  In the midst of the pandemic, the diocese of Halifax-Yarmouth in Nova Scotia, Canada responded by encouraging parishes to provide space in their churchyards, along with basic structures having both light and heating; bedding; and other necessities.  Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston in Texas implemented a Rapid Re-Housing Program, working with the Houston Housing Authority and the NGO Coalition for the Homeless to rescue people who had recently found themselves homeless by providing apartments and connections to other Catholic Charities services to set them back on the track to self-sufficiency.

And what of our individual responsibility?  Of course, we should constructively consult our elected representatives and follow the policies of candidates closely, voting for candidates we believe will support effective action.  But we can also do more.  Countless organizations dedicating to helping those without homes stress the importance of looking people in the eye and acknowledging them as human beings – even considering, if conversation is safely possible, learning their names and greeting them as we pass.  We can also consider contributing to such organizations, as volunteers and donors.

The Economist has published a set of essays lamenting the state of today’s journalism and expressing concern for coming elections.  A primary source of that concern is the loss of “a common base of facts,” which hinders open, frank conversation from multiple points of view.  How can Catholics keep themselves informed?  How can we help improve news coverage?

Truth, Media, & Good Governance – Moving toward and respecting the truth

A recent set of essays published by The Economist laments the state of Western journalism, emphasizing the importance of the seemingly lost principles of truth, balance, and open discourse in politics.  Speaking with specific reference to the importance of communication pertaining to elections, the authors examine challenges faced by voters and others hoping to pull reliable news reports from a babbling sea of fragmented voices – many of which pander to their audiences in order to keep readership numbers up, sometimes to the point of ignoring facts that aren’t helpful to the positions they promote while focusing on favorable and even fabricated facts.

It requires effort to create and nurture a political culture in which people can argue constructively, with disagreement and comprise, the authors observe, citing US sources as early as Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.  The author of one essay – a former editorial-page editor of the New York Times – argues that the Times has abdicated its pledge to pursue the news “without fear or favour” along with a promise to promote intelligent discussion from all informed points of view.  Speaking from personal experience, he charges that the Times’s claims to integrity and true independence have been undermined by ideological journalists and “commercial staff” who do not believe that readers can be trusted with “potentially dangerous ideas or facts.”

The loss by society of the ability to center conversations on “a common set of facts” is a primary them of the essays.

Church Teaching

Truth is fundamental to any just form of governance. Without it, no democracy can survive. Even when – as we always should – we seek consensus, that consensus must be founded on truth.

Men and women have the specific duty to move always towards the truth, to respect it and bear responsible witness to it. Living in the truth has special significance in social relationships. In fact, when the coexistence of human beings within a community is founded on truth, it is ordered and fruitful, and it corresponds to their dignity as persons…  Modern times call for an intensive educational effort and a corresponding commitment on the part of all so that the quest for truth cannot be ascribed to the sum of different opinions, nor to one or another of these opinions.  Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, 198

In other words, the Church, too acknowledges the need for a common set of facts.

Points to Ponder

  • How can we, as Catholics, discharge our duty “to move always toward the truth, to respect it and bear responsible witness to it?”

It seems clear that a first step involves identifying responsible news sources: individuals and organizations who undertake to report truthfully, in a balanced way, in accordance with stated values, and who are willing to faithfully present all viewpoints within the contours of those values.

An important point in identifying such news sources is to seek out the values they purport to hold, and to confirm that their reporting is consistent with them. If these values are sufficiently consistent with the values held by other news sources, and by society itself, then the common moral base these values represent will serve as a reliable and convenient source for common sets of facts.

It is also important to support well-meaning, balanced news sources.  If sustainable support is not available, it can be very difficult to maintain professional, consistent coverage of topics citizens out to care and be informed about.  Unfortunately, it can be easier to fall back on free rants and exhortations that merely reinforce what we already believe, or what we want to believe, than to consider alternative and often challenging points of view.

With journalism – indeed, all social discourse – in this state, we cannot afford to be complacent.

  • How is it possible to identify sources of news reliably reported in accordance with values consistent with Catholic values?

This can be difficult.  First, one must be familiar with Catholic social values.  But this is the easy part.

Many news sources publish or at least make reference to the values they seek to uphold on “About” pages of online resources, and in columns printed in longer documents.  It may be safest to try such sources first, checking the consistency between Catholic teaching and reported value statements, and making an effort to keep the publishers honest through commentary or other forms of feedback.

Since it can be difficult to find sources of the broad spectrum of news coverage that can be helpful to living a faithful live of civic participation, it may be necessary to start with both the best secular news sources we can identify and the broadest faithful Catholic coverage we can find, and encourage them to grow towards one another.

Examples of Catholic news sources include the following.  Unfortunately, in many cases they tend to focus on internal church news – bake sales, the bishop’s latest homily, etc. – and ignore things like the stock markets, deforestation, housing proposals, and the like.  Perhaps we can engage with these news sources and gently encourage them to broaden their perspectives without losing their faith-based values.

We at Catholic Conscience will continue working to collect listings of more-reliable sources of general, broad-based news, and to share them in future issues.

Of Common Concern

Of the many issues facing society today, the environment remains one of the most urgent and controversial.  Carbon tax proposals serve as prime examples.  What principles and values should Catholics consider in reflecting on such issues?

Carbon Taxes: Solidarity, Subsidiarity, Governance, and Prudence

As the world navigates the complexities of the climate change issue, the implementation of a carbon tax has become an unavoidable reminder that political and practical choices and actions often have complex and unforeseen consequences – they can, for example have impacts not only on the environment, but on individuals who have to deal with the consequences of those choices and actions.

The Canadian Government’s rationale for a carbon tax is that it addresses the costs associated with the effects of climate change. In short it is a “price on carbon pollution in Canada.” The intention of the tax is to create a dent in emissions and thereby help to shape people’s behaviour, since the more energy costs rise, the less they’ll be consumed, resulting in a decrease in carbon emission rates.

Many political leaders agree.  Others say the tax is unfair, ineffective, and puts unnecessary burdens on the working class. In the case of Saskatchewan, politicians say the federal government is showing favoritism to one area of the country over another with the exemption on home heating oil it provided in the Atlantic provinces.

With 90 per cent of Saskatchewan households using natural gas to heat their homes, indications are Premier Scott Moe will have his province’s energy ministry stop collecting carbon tax on natural gas beginning Jan. 1 unless taxes on heating fuel are repealed across the nation.

The Saskatchewan Legislative Assembly voted unanimously to not remit the tax unless the federal government offers an exemption as they did for home heating oil in the Atlantic provinces.

Others, however, believe taxation is needed to battle climate change, an issue that many Catholics and people of good will view as a crucial moral issue that needs to be addressed, the argument being that if we do nothing, we are putting future generations at risk.

The resulting carbon tax debate raises challenging questions about how to balance our duties toward environmental stewardship and care for our common home with the principle of solidarity with our fellow humans.

Catholic Teaching

The Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, a brainchild of Pope Saint John Paul II, was published in 2004 by the Pontifical Council for Justice & Peace. Read together with and informed by the Gospels, the Old Testament, the Catechism, and subsequent papal documents, it provides a comprehensive statement of Catholic Social Teaching, touching on all aspects of social life, from the family to International Relations, and from the sanctity of life to the environment, the economy, human rights, civil liberties, and obligations; the economy, good governance, and social institutions such as the Church, schools, governments, and civil society. (

Chapter Seven of the Compendium explains that:

Taxes and Public Spending as Tools for Shaping Society

  1. Tax revenues and public spending take on crucial economic importance for every civil and political community. The goal to be sought is public financing that is itself capable of becoming an instrument of development and solidarity. Just, efficient and effective public financing will have very positive effects on the economy, because it will encourage employment growth and sustain business and non – profit activities and help to increase the credibility of the State as the guarantor of systems of social insurance and protection that are designed above all to protect the weakest members of society.

Public spending is directed to the common good when certain fundamental principles are observed: the payment of taxes [739] as part of the duty of solidarity; a reasonable and fair application of taxes;[740] precision and integrity in administering and distributing public resources.[741] In the redistribution of resources, public spending must observe the principles of solidarity, equality and making use of talents. It must also pay greater attention to families, designating an adequate amount of resources for this purpose.[742]

Civic Cooperation

  1. Cooperation, even in its less structured forms, shows itself to be one of the most effective responses to a mentality of conflict and unlimited competition that seems so prevalent today. The relationships that are established in a climate of cooperation and solidarity overcome ideological divisions, prompting people to seek out what unites them rather than what divides them.

Natural Law and the Limits of Civic Obedience

  1. Recognizing that natural law is the basis for and places limits on positive law means admitting that it is legitimate to resist authority should it violate in a serious or repeated manner the essential principles of natural law. Saint Thomas Aquinas writes that “one is obliged to obey … insofar as it is required by the order of justice.”[823] Natural law is therefore the basis of the right to resistance.

There can be many different concrete ways in which right [of resistance] may be exercised; there are also many different ends that may be pursued. Resistance to authority is meant to attest to the validity of a different way of looking at things, whether the intent is to achieve partial change, for example, modifying certain laws, or to fight for a radical change in the situation.

Points for reflection: 

For example, does the application of exemptions to carbon tax for fuels which are used more in one part of a country than another touch upon the principle of solidarity – a Catholic term meaning that ‘since we are all parts of the one living body of Christ, what hurts them also hurts us’? Why or why not?

Would the Government of Saskatchewan be justified in refusing its legal duty by retaining a tax that has been collected in the name of the common good? Or would retention be an appropriate use of its right to resist what it considers and unfair taxation law?

Might the principle of subsidiarity – that individuals and lower groupings of society should be encouraged and enabled to take responsibility for themselves, rather than relying on higher or larger groupings – help to inform this analysis? Would provinces be better positioned to come up with their own incentives to reduce carbon emissions than the federal government?

What relevance, if any, does the virtue of prudence bear on such a topic?  Section 1806 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church defines prudence as “the virtue that disposes practical reason to discern our true good in every circumstance and to choose the right means of achieving it… it guides the other virtues by setting rule and measure. It is prudence that immediately guides the judgment of conscience.”

In situations, for example, where risks associated with an issue are not clearly defined and no one certain correct answer is apparent, might prudence suggest that perhaps the safest course might be the best one to follow?  Would such reasoning apply to continued addition of carbon and other gasses to the atmosphere?  What might future generations, looking back to today, discern as a prudent choice for us in the here and now?



Catholic Journalism: Telling Truth in Charity

The Canadian Catholic News is offering a 12-week, non-credit course covering the foundations of Catholic journalism, including the theological foundations, basic journalism skills such as the interview and what makes a good story, and ethics for the Catholic newsroom. The format includes lectures, discussions and assignments.  The pool of six highly-experienced and highly-qualified instructors is drawn from across Canada.  Registration and more information are at:

Weekly Rosary

Catholic Conscience is inaugurating a series of weekly Rosaries, with intentions for civic participation and civic leaders.  We will start on Monday, January 1, at 11AM Eastern Time in North America (UTC -5) to celebrate the World Day of Peace and the Solemnity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, then shift to Wednesdays at the same time, starting on January 10.  Are all welcome.  There is no fee, but as a precaution we are asking participants to register at

Voters Guides and Elections

  • We remain busy preparing voter guides for coming elections. The following are on our list in the following order, bearing in mind that in some cases elections may be called early.  If you would like us to prepare a guide for your jurisdiction, please contact us at  Warning:  we may ask you to help.
    • Canada Federal Election – nominally set for 20 October 2025, but there are concerns of an early call
    • British Columbia Provincial Election, set for 19 October 2024
    • New Brunswick Provincial Election, set for 21 October 2024
    • Saskatchewan Provincial Election, set for 28 October 2024
    • US Presidential Election, set for 5 November 2024
    • UK Federal Election, set for January 2025


Our Lady of All Nations

Near the end of the Second World War, Ms Ida Peerdeman of Amsterdam began to experience what she reported as apparitions of the Virgin Mary.  During these experiences the Blessed Mother asked that a prayer be recited throughout the world:

Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the Father, send now Your Spirit over the earth. Let the Holy Spirit live in the hearts of all nations, that they may be preserved from degeneration, disaster and war.

May the Lady of All Nations, who once was Mary, be our Advocate. Amen.

Let us join Ms Peerdeman in recalling this prayer frequently.



We’re busy, and growing. To help citizens and students around the world understand the beauty and the truth of Catholic Social Teaching, we need to engage educated, balanced, and fair-minded individuals in many countries. Your contribution can go a long way.

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