Issue

Climate Change Response; Renewable & Sustainable Energy

Vatican News, June 14, 2019:

Pope Francis told those gathered for a Vatican Summit on the environment that the summit was taking taking place at a “critical moment.”  Today’s ecological crisis, especially climate change, he said, “threatens the very future of the human family”. 

Citing the release of an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) which warns that effects on climate will be catastrophic if the threshold of 1.5ºC outlined in the Paris Agreement goal is crossed. “The Report warns… that only one decade or so remains in order to achieve this confinement of global warming.”

He reminded those present that “it is the poor who suffer the worst impacts of the climate crisis.” 

 

The Compendium:

Care for the environment represents a challenge for all of humanity. It is a matter of a common and universal duty, that of respecting a common good, destined for all, by preventing anyone from using “with impunity the different categories of beings, whether living or inanimate — animals, plants, the natural elements — simply as one wishes, according to one's own economic needs.”

It is a responsibility that must mature on the basis of the global dimension of the present ecological crisis… This perspective takes on a particular importance when one considers, in the context of the close relationships that bind the various parts of the ecosystem, the environmental value of biodiversity, which must be handled with a sense of responsibility and adequately protected…

 Responsibility for the environment, the common heritage of mankind, extends not only to present needs but also to those of the future… This is a responsibility that present generations have towards those of the future…

The juridical content of “the right to a safe and healthy natural environment” is gradually taking form… But juridical measures by themselves are not sufficient.[988] They must be accompanied by a growing sense of responsibility as well as an effective change of mentality and lifestyle.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church §§ 466-470

Liberal

The Liberal government approved an expanded trans-mountain pipeline project (CBC News, 18 June 2019)

2015 Platform:

We will provide national leadership and join with the provinces and territories to take action on climate change, put a price on carbon, and reduce carbon pollution.

We will:

· Complete a comprehensive environmental assessment, and modernize the National Energy Board to ensure clean expertise and focus

· Stop interference by Ministers in environmental assessments

· Partner with provinces & territories to reduce GHG emissions

· Establish national emission reduction targets

· Participate in Paris Climate Conference

· Establish Low Carbon Economy Trust, to fund projects that reduce carbon emissions

· Invest in green infrastructure

· Fulfill G20 commitments and phase out subsidies for oil industry

· Partner with US & Mexico for clean energy & environment agreement

· Improve energy efficiency standards for consumer and commercial products, and use new financing instruments to encourage investments in energy-saving retrofits to Canada’s industrial, commercial, and residential buildings.

· Provide more support for our clean technology companies to successfully export their products.

· Look for ways for government to be an “early adopter” of emerging green technologies, and will support clean transportation by adding electric vehicle charging stations at federal parking lots, and rapidly expanding the federal fleet of electric vehicles.To foster creativity, establish Canada Research Chairs in sustainable technology.

· Work closely with the provinces and territories to develop a Canadian Energy Strategy to protect Canada’s energy security; encourage energy conservation; and bring cleaner, renewable energy onto the electricity grid.

New Democrat

2019 Platform:

The NDP will:

· Declare a climate emergency, implement science-based greenhouse gas reduction targets to stabilize global temperature rise at 1.5° C

· Create an independent Climate Accountability Office to audit progress

· Continue carbon pricing, with rebates for qualifying households

· Emphasize clean procurement by federal government, with clean buildings and electric vehicles

Conservative

2019 Police Declaration:

The Conservative Party:

· Opposes federally-imposed carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems. Provinces and territories should be free to develop their own policies.

· Supports legislated emissions caps to reduce smog-causing pollutants

· Supports stringent fuel efficiency and exhaust emission standards

· Calls for global emissions reduction regime with binding targets for all global emitters, including China and the US

· Calls for comprehensive review of all environmental and energy initiatives, and programs to increase public awareness of economic benefits of environmental and waste-reduction efforts

· Supports development of renewable and non-renewable energy framework which accounts for existing obligations and long-term requirements for domestic consumption and export

· Supports use of tax credits for sustainable environmental innovation

· Supports cooperation with provinces and territories to reduce barriers to movement of energy products across provincial and territorial borders

· Supports reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions through continued exploration for fossil fuels and pipeline construction, improved transportation and plant efficiencies

· Supports use of nuclear energy

· Supports encouragement and support of private development of alternative energies and fuels, including wind, solar, geothermal, bio-diesel, ethanol and methane, fuel cells, and use of hydrogen

·  Supports and encourages private development of Energy East pipeline, to reduce reliance on foreign oil

Green

Vision Green, 2019.

Canada must take the lead in global negotiations by:

• Initially, reducing Canadian emissions 30% below 2005 levels by 2025, and by 85% compared to 1990 levels by 2050, regardless of what other countries do;

• Committing to greenhouse gas reductions required to achieve a target of 350 ppm to cap the maximum global temperature increase at 1.5 degrees;

• Developing a global plan to attack emissions from international aviation and shipping, which are currently outside the Paris Agreement;

• Adopting far more aggressive emission reductions, if other industrialized countries also participate;

• Committing to periodically reassess as needed, and to push for an international system of periodic review, reassessment, and target renewal.

• Phasing out carbon emissions as quickly as possible until we become ‘carbon neutral’ by 2100. We will eventually deplete fossil fuels; the sooner we embrace a green economy, the better off we will be.

Green Party MPs will:

• Ensure Canada joins the International Renewable Energy Agency;

• Establish design and management principles for a nationally integrated electrical power grid capable of efficiently transporting high electrical loads and accommodating diverse sources of renewable electrical energy;

• Work with Canada’s wind industry and the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CANWEA) to accelerate the rapid deployment of wind turbines to achieve 20% of Canada’s energy needs by 2025;

• Restore the Wind Power Production Tax Incentive and incentives for projects with approved Advanced Renewable Tariffs for a diversity of small renewable energy projects;

• Provide a two cent/kWh subsidy for renewable energy produced in any province or territory adopting net metering, peak power pricing, and plans for renewable grid extensions;

• Support formation of local energy co-operative in provinces or territories;

• Provide substantial R&D funding for ocean energy technologies in provinces and territories;

• Provide substantial R&D funding for electricity storage technologies;

•  Oppose nuclear energy because it is neither safe, nor clean, nor economical.

• Work with provinces to phase out existing nuclear power, & stem the buildup of nuclear wastes

• Institute a moratorium on uranium mining and refining;

• Demand that operations of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) and AECL be transparent and at arm’s-length from government;

• Amend the Nuclear Liability Act, increasing maximum insured liabilities from $1 billion to $13 billion (the amount for which U.S. reactors are insured).

Zero Waste

Canada leads the world in per-capita production of solid waste. Landfills account for more GHG emissions than do mining, construction, and domestic aviation combined. Most of these emissions are methane gas, which is over 20 times more heat absorbing than carbon dioxide. Landfills also leach toxic chemicals into soil and water.
We support shifting to considering waste as a resource. Reusing and recycling wastes has been shown to generate 10 to 15 times more jobs than incineration or landfilling.

• We believe that strong incentives will be required to achieve zero waste.

Green Party MPs will:

• Provide assistance to municipalities in carrying out major waste reduction activities including recycling and central composting facilities;

• Oppose waste-to-energy incinerators for materials that can and should be recycled, composted, or down-cycled.

• Pass laws (such as those in Germany) requiring manufacturers to accept lifetime stewardship of all products & packaging, so that goods returned to the manufacturer are better designed to be re-usable and recoverable;

• Move to full reclamation of all electronic and hazardous materials by initiating a recycling deposit tax paid at purchase;

• In cooperation with provincial and territorial governments, fund, implement, and adopt an expedient timetable to achieve a national phase-out of the use of landfills for unsorted waste;

• Introduce a green labeling system for products that are biodegradable, reusable, or recyclable, and for products that are primarily made from recycled materials.
Transportation can dramatically reduce GHG emissions. We will:

• Work with the motor industry, provinces, territories, and other partners to develop a sustainable vehicles strategy, targeting an 85% reduction in emissions below today’s level by 2040;

• Adopt California standards requiring a 30% reduction in GHG emissions from new vehicles sold in Canada by 2020, 50% by 2025, and 90% by 2030.

• Implement a national fast-charging electric vehicle infrastructure by investing $12 million into travel corridor pilot projects around major urban centres;

• Provide tax incentives for electricity storage, to benefit renewable energy development in every province and territory and maximize the efficient use of existing infrastructure;

• Accelerate adoption of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and fully electric vehicles by signing the Plug-In Partners advanced purchasing agreement (creating a federal buying pool) with a commitment to buy large numbers of PHEVs for federal government use as soon as they are available.

Agriculture

• Of the GHG emissions generated Because of the multiple benefits of organic farming methods, including a big reduction in GHG emissions, Green Party MPs will work to assist non-organic farmers who wish to transition to organics

• Local food production will be encouraged to reduce emissions from transport.

• Green Party MPs will promote the use of manure and farm waste to build soil nutrition and organic content.

• We will pay farmers for carbon sequestration in soils within a domestic carbon market. This will promote no-till agriculture practices which will in turn slow and reverse the process of soil depletion.

• We will plan for transition to 100% organic farming.

• Urban agriculture will be encouraged to provide more local food, including more green roofs, reducing air conditioning demand and run-off in deluge rains.

Christian Heritage

2019 Platform:

Mankind has been given the responsibility of “stewarding” the earth, including its natural resources, its varied life forms and its complex ecosystems, for the benefit of future generations and to protect the integrity and beauty of God’s creation. We must respectfully and gratefully use and maintain the function of our natural ecosystems.

Canada has been blessed with an abundance of natural resources, including fossil fuels, fresh water, productive land, minerals and a wide variety of plants and animals, which are not only beautiful but useful to our citizens. The Christian Heritage Party will establish management guidelines based on principles of respectful and efficient use of non-renewable resources and wise replenishment and care for renewable resources

Peoples' Party

2019 Platform:

It is an undisputed fact that the world’s climate has always changed and will continue to change. Until twelve thousand years ago, much of Canada was under ice, and it is thanks to natural climate change that we can live here today.

There is no scientific consensus on the theory that CO2 produced by human activity is causing dangerous global warming today or will in the future, and that the world is facing environmental catastrophes unless these emissions are drastically reduced. Many renowned scientists continue to challenge this theory.

The policy debate about global warming is not grounded on science anymore. It has been hijacked by proponents of big government who are using crude propaganda techniques to impose their views.

They publicly ridicule and harass anyone who expresses doubt. They make exaggerated claims to scare people. They even manipulate school children, getting them to pressure their parents and to demonstrate in the streets.

  • Climate change alarmism is based on flawed models that have consistently failed at correctly predicting the future. None of the cataclysmic predictions that have been made about the climate since the 1970s have come true. No new ice age. No steady warming in direct relation with increases in CO2 levels. No disappearance of polar ice caps. No exceptional rise in ocean levels. No abnormal increase in catastrophic weather events. No widespread crop failure and famine.
  • In fact, CO2 is beneficial for agriculture and there has recently been a measurable “greening” of the world in part thanks to higher levels. Despite what global warming propaganda claims, CO2 is not a pollutant. It is an essential ingredient for life on Earth and needed for plant growth.

Our Plan

  • Given the uncertainties over the scientific basis of global warming, and the certainties about the huge costs of measures designed to fight it, there is no compelling reason to jeopardize our prosperity with more government interventions.

A People’s Party government will:

  • Withdraw from the Paris Accord and abandon unrealistic greenhouse gas emission reduction targets.
  • Stop sending billions of dollars to developing countries to help them reduce their emissions.
  • Abolish the Liberal government’s carbon tax and leave it to provincial governments to adopt programs to reduce emissions if they want to.
  • Abolish subsidies for green technology and let private players develop profitable and efficient alternatives.
  • Invest in mitigation strategies if problems arise as a result of any natural climate change.
  • Prioritize implementing practical solutions to make Canada’s air, water and soil cleaner, including bringing clean drinking water to remote First Nations communities.

Issue

Population growth; birth control

The position of the Church:

The judgment concerning the interval of time between births, and that regarding the number of children, belongs to the spouses alone. This is one of their inalienable rights, to be exercised before God with due consideration of their obligations towards themselves, their children already born, the family and society.

The intervention of public authorities within the limits of their competence to provide information and enact suitable measures in the area of demographics must be made in a way that fully respects the persons and the freedom of the couple. Such intervention may never become a substitute for their decisions. All the more must various organizations active in this area refrain from doing the same.

All programs of economic assistance aimed at financing campaigns of sterilization and contraception, as well as the subordination of economic assistance to such campaigns, are to be morally condemned as affronts to the dignity of the person and the family.

The answer to questions connected with population growth must instead by sought in simultaneous respect both of sexual morals and of social ethics, promoting greater justice and authentic solidarity so that dignity is given to life in all circumstances, starting with economic, social and cultural conditions.

The desire to be a mother or a father does not justify any “right to children”, whereas the rights of the unborn child are evident…

The rapid development of research and its technological application in the area of reproduction poses new and delicate questions that involve society and the norms that regulate human social life.

It must be repeated that the ethical unacceptability of all reproductive techniques — such as the donation of sperm or ova, surrogate motherhood, heterologous artificial fertilization — that make use of the uterus of another woman or of gametes of persons other than the married couple, injuring the right of the child to be born of one father and one mother who are father and mother both from a biological and from a legal point of view. Equally unacceptable are methods that separate the unitive act from the procreative act by making use of laboratory techniques, such as homologous artificial insemination or fertilization, such that the child comes about more as the result of an act of technology than as the natural fruit of a human act in which there is a full and total giving of the couple…

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church § 235

Liberal

No known published position.

New Democrat

No known published position.

Conservative

No known published position.

Green

Vision Green, 2019:

The world’s population has been growing at an exponential rate. Two thousand years ago, when the historical Jesus of Nazareth was born, he was one of an estimated 200 million people on the planet. It took 1500 years for human numbers on the planet to double to 400 million. Thanks in part to reduced fertility levels, the population will not double again, but should stabilize at nine billion people by 2050.

The question of the Earth’s carrying capacity is critical. While consumption is a key issue, so is technology. Issues of migration, trade, equity, militarism and environmental degradation are all important factors in the question of whether there are too many humans.

Fortunately, the solution to population growth is within our grasp. It is well established that when poverty is alleviated and particularly when women and girls are educated, and have access to primary health care and family planning, political autonomy and economic power, fertility rates drop. This has been demonstrated time and time again, in nations around the Earth.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Significantly increase Canadian overseas development assistance focused on improving the education, and the social and economic power and status, of women and girls
  • Integrate goals for reduced fertility into the overall efforts to eliminate poverty;
  • Ensure that maternal health programs funded by Canada do not limit access to any form of family planning and primary health care, including access to safe, legal abortions;
  • Recognize that the high level of per capita resource consumption in developed countries makes the impact of their populations much more serious;
  • Realize that failure to stabilize and reduce human population within a reasonable time will result in the inevitable reduction of human population by means of high death rates as the Earth’s human carrying capacity is not only exceeded but reduced by the consumption of resources and the destruction of biological capital, resulting in poverty, starvation, disease, great human suffering, and possibly social disruption.

Address the problem of global overpopulation through a foreign policy committed to environmentally sustainable local economies, improving education and health care, and fostering political and economic rights of women as equal participants in society;

Christian Heritage

No known published position.

Peoples' Party

No known published position.

Issue

Land, air and water conservation; agricultural, parks & greenbelt; resources

The Church’s view:

Care for the environment represents a challenge for all of humanity. It is a matter of a common and universal duty, that of respecting a common good, destined for all, by preventing anyone from using with impunity the different categories of beings, whether living or inanimate — animals, plants, the natural elements — simply as one wishes, according to one's own economic needs.

It is a responsibility that must mature on the basis of the global dimension of the present ecological crisis… This perspective takes on a particular importance when one considers, in the context of the close relationships that bind the various parts of the ecosystem, the environmental value of biodiversity, which must be handled with a sense of responsibility and adequately protected…

Responsibility for the environment, the common heritage of mankind, extends not only to present needs but also to those of the future… This is a responsibility that present generations have towards those of the future…

The juridical content of “the right to a safe and healthy natural environment” is gradually taking form… But juridical measures by themselves are not sufficient.[988] They must be accompanied by a growing sense of responsibility as well as an effective change of mentality and lifestyle.

Programs of economic development must carefully consider “the need to respect the integrity and the cycles of nature” because natural resources are limited and some are not renewable. The present rhythm of exploitation is seriously compromising the availability of some natural resources for both the present and the future.

Solutions to the ecological problem require that economic activity respect the environment to a greater degree, reconciling the needs of economic development with those of environmental protection…

Forests help maintain the essential natural balance necessary for life. Their destruction also through the inconsiderate and malicious setting of fires, accelerates the processes of desertification with risky consequences for water reserves and compromises the lives of many indigenous peoples and the well-being of future generations. All individuals as well as institutional subjects must feel the commitment to protect the heritage of forests and, where necessary, promote adequate programs of reforestation.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 466-470

Liberal

2018 Policy Resolutions:

  • Resolved to establish an Environmental Bill of Rights, to ensure all Canadians have access to ‘adequate environmental information, justice in an environmental context, and effective mechanisms for participation in environmental decision-making’
  • Resolved to develop a comprehensive, integrated Three-Oceans Policy, including environmental protection, economic and social development, R&D, sovereignty and security, and acquisition of oceanographic research vessels; develop full access to internet & telecommunications throughout the Arctic

2015 Platform:

  • Boost investment in green infrastructure by nearly $6 billion over four years, and $20 billion over ten years for local water and wastewater facilities, infrastructure to account for climate change
  • Renew commitments to Great Lakes agreements with US
  • Increase protected Marine and Coastal areas
  • Increase investment in Marine and Oceanographic science; and
  • Restore funding to Parks Canada; limit development in parks

New Democrat

2019 Platform:

  • Implement Environmental Bill of Rights to ensure all communities have clean water, land, and air
  • Ban single-use plastics; make companies responsible for full lifecycle of plastics and packaging
  • Develop urban national parks, and national tree-planting strategy
  • Enforce Species at Risk Act to ensure recovery of biodiversity
  • Work with municipalities to improve waste management and recycling
  • Partner with farmers and communities to monitor and protect pollinators
  • Protect 30% of land, freshwater, and oceans by 2030, ensure enforcement
  • Implement national freshwater strategy, in cooperation with provinces and territories
  • Develop urban national parks, and national tree-planting strategy

Recognizing that protecting our oceans is an important part of fighting climate change, we will work to reduce emissions from shipping and fishing, and preserve ocean biodiversity by expanding marine protected areas.

Conservative

2019 Policy Declaration:

The Conservative Party:

  • Supports positive mining policies, such as increased investment in geosciences education and research, and streamlined regulatory processes
  • Supports exploration and development of offshore resources along all coastal waters, including consideration of economic potential prior to designation of new protected areas
  • Promotes international cooperation in marine research for peaceful purposes
  • Supports increased efforts to detect and punish dumping of oil from ships
  • Supports measures to eliminate spread of aquatic invasive species
  • Proposes cooperation with US to protect Great Lakes and St Lawrence basin as sustainable resources
  • Supports legislation for release of clean-up liability on approval of development of brownfields
  • Proposes that environmental remediation costs be tax deductible
  • Proposes insurance fund for post-liability environmental clean-ups

Green

Vision Green, 2019:

Canada ranks nearly last amongst Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in our generation of pollution and nuclear and hazardous wastes, and lags in the effectiveness of regulations covering toxic and chemical waste.

Green MPs will:

  • Amend the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) to enshrine the right of Canadians to a healthy environment.
  • Regulate non-commercial handling and disposal of pesticides and radionuclides, and all substances shown to be a significant risk to human health, including carcinogens, etc,;
  • Establish a significant Toxic Chemical Tax (TCT) on harmful chemicals to make industry accountable for chemicals it produces and eventually to eliminate production of toxic substances;
  • End production and use of the most dangerous toxic chemicals in Canada by 2025, and of pesticides for cosmetic purposes in Canada by 2020

Land:

  • Protect and improve the quality of water in our streams, lakes, and aquifers;
  • Restore the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Board for conservation;
  • Safely recycle livestock waste is recycled stop contamination by agricultural run-off;
  • Introduce cost-shared programs to help farmers protect wildlife, land, air, and water;

Stop the loss of agricultural land to development by negotiating agreements with the provinces to preserve prime agricultural land; and by assisting farmers in climate change adaptation by:

  • Encouraging farming methods that increase carbon sequestration and decrease water requirements;
  • Establishing GHG emission targets for all components of the agri-food system
  • Restructuring Canada’s Business Risk Management Programs to help farmers cope with climate risk.

Air

  • Strengthen CEPA with specific regulations to reduce particulates, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and other airborne contaminants;

Water

  • Protect the fundamental right to clean freshwater for all Canadians today and in future generations by amending the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms to enshrine the right of future Canadians to an ecological heritage that includes breathable air and drinkable water;
  • Restore the protections of the Navigable Waters Protection Act as prior to 2006;
  • Establish a Canada Water Fund of $215 million per year for five years to focus on long-term watershed health, alleviating the problem of run-off of pollutants and nutrients, and to fund the continuation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Protocol;
  • Push government to strategically implement the 1987 Federal Water Policy to meet the requirements of sustainable water management – equity, efficiency, and ecological integrity.
  • Ensure that water is managed in a way that helps create healthy, sustainable communities and fosters sustainable livelihoods
  • Address inter-provincial/territorial and international water-related concern
  • Increase Canadian aid for access to basic water requirements and sanitation consistent with the Sustainable Development Goals;

Oceans

  • As a country bordering three oceans, Canada has a huge responsibility for ocean protection. The UN special conference on the oceans in June 2017 increased global awareness of: Ocean acidification; Massive contamination of oceans by plastics; Alarming declines in oxygen availability in coastal zones and the deep ocean; Illegal fishing; Unsustainable aquaculture; and Land-based sources of marine pollution.
  • Canada must take steps to reduce our own contribution to plastic pollution of our oceans. We must ban single-use plastic items and contribute to global efforts to rid the oceans of plastics. We must create a national coastal monitoring programme to track ocean acidification.
  • Reduce run-off of fertilizers promoting algal blooms in our oceans; Ensure climate mitigation and adaptation programmes have a clear focus on oceans.

Christian Heritage

2019 Platform

Canada has been blessed with an abundance of natural resources, including fossil fuels, fresh water, productive land, minerals and a wide variety of plants and animals, which are not only beautiful but useful to our citizens. The Christian Heritage Party will establish management guidelines based on principles of respectful and efficient use of non-renewable resources and wise replenishment and care for renewable resources.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Biodiversity; species preservation; care for animals & livestock

The Church’s view:

Care for the environment represents a challenge for all of humanity. It is a matter of a common and universal duty, that of respecting a common good, destined for all, by preventing anyone from using with impunity the different categories of beings, whether living or inanimate — animals, plants, the natural elements — simply as one wishes, according to one's own economic needs.

It is a responsibility that must mature on the basis of the global dimension of the present ecological crisis… This perspective takes on a particular importance when one considers, in the context of the close relationships that bind the various parts of the ecosystem, the environmental value of biodiversity, which must be handled with a sense of responsibility and adequately protected…

Responsibility for the environment, the common heritage of mankind, extends not only to present needs but also to those of the future… This is a responsibility that present generations have towards those of the future…

But juridical measures by themselves are not sufficient.[988] They must be accompanied by a growing sense of responsibility as well as an effective change of mentality and lifestyle.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§466-470

Liberal

  • No known published position.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

  • Conservation is a vital way to protect ecosystems and preserve biodiversity. New Democrats will protect 30% of our land, freshwater, and oceans by 2030 and back those protections with funding and enforcement. We’ll also work with other levels of government to develop a system of urban national parks – and a national approach to tree-planting, using responsible reforestation to help lower our carbon footprint
  • It’s time for strong action to protect species at risk in Canada. New Democrats will use all the tools available under the Species at Risk Act and ensure the implementation of recovery strategies to preserve biodiversity for generations to come
  • Recognizing that protecting our oceans is an important part of fighting climate change, we will work to reduce emissions from shipping and fishing, and preserve ocean biodiversity by expanding marine protected areas

The way we grow crops, raise livestock, and use food also has an impact on our climate future – and nutrition for all Canadians. We’ll work to connect communities to farmers through local food hubs, and develop a national food waste strategy to reduce the huge amounts of food that currently go to waste in Canada. A New Democrat government will also partner with farmers and communities to support biodiversity and to monitor and protect pollinator health.

Conservative

  • No known published position.

 

Green

Vision Green, 2019

Globally, our wealth of species is being lost at an astounding rate. The legal listing of species at risk has become more political and less scientific each year.

  • We envision a species protection act that includes powers to enforce prescribed measures to protect species at risk and stop acts of noncompliance.

Green Party MPs will amend Canada’s SARA to:

  • Ensure that listing under SARA is based on scientific, and not political, processes. COSEWIC’s determination will be the actual legal listing.
  • Ensure that recovery-planning efforts identify and then appropriately manage, protect and/or restore the habitat that species need to recover
  • Make it a criminal offence to kill a listed species
  • identify ecologically significant areas and establish a Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan for Canada, working with the provinces to establish and protect wildlife corridors.
  • Ensure the quality and wholesomeness of food by strengthening the monitoring of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, growth hormones, non-therapeutic antibiotics, and insecticides in food production, processing and storage, with the goal of an orderly elimination of detectable residues

Commercial seal hunting

The seal hunt is unsound and unsustainable, particularly now that climate change has increased pup mortality.

  • The Green Party does not support the current industrial, commercial seal hunt in Canada. We support hunting by Aboriginal peoples and local communities.

Commercial whale hunting

Since 1972, Canada has banned commercial whaling in Canadian waters. The Green Party believes that Canada should take a more active role in opposing whaling internationally.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Work towards a complete worldwide ban on commercial whaling
  • Oppose all hunting of bowhead whales, excluding Canadian Aboriginal subsistence hunting

Animal welfare

While everyone is against cruelty to animals, factory farming has been allowed to create systematic and routine cruelty to livestock production. Green Party MPs will:

  • Adopt animal welfare legislation to prevent inhumane treatment of farm animals including intensive factory farming methods. The Act will set standards for distances live animals can be transported, conditions of animals in slaughterhouses, auctions, and entertainment, and it will prohibit trade in exotic animals;
  • Invest in the development and training of police officers to deal with cruelty cases
  • Require all zoos to be licensed, to operate at a professional standard, be subject to strict animal welfare and public safety regulations
  • Prohibit importing marine mammals for public display in zoos, marine parks, and aquariums;
  • Prohibit the captive breeding of animals in zoos and marine parks, except for verifiable conservation purposes;
  • Make the use of animals for research, testing, and educational purposes unlawful where a non-animal method or approach is reasonably or practicably available
  • Ban all use of non-human primates for genetic manipulation and cloning, invasive psychological and behavioural research, substance abuse research, and warfare research

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

 

Issue

Genetically-modified foods & plants

Care for the environment… is a matter of a common and universal duty, that of respecting a common good, destined for all, by preventing anyone from using with impunity the different categories of beings, whether living or inanimate — animals, plants, the natural elements — simply as one wishes, according to one's own economic needs….

This perspective takes on a particular importance when one considers, in the context of the close relationships that bind the various parts of the ecosystem, the environmental value of biodiversity, which must be handled with a sense of responsibility and adequately protected…

Responsibility for the environment, the common heritage of mankind, extends not only to present needs but also to those of the future… This is a responsibility that present generations have towards those of the future…

But juridical measures by themselves are not sufficient. They must be accompanied by a growing sense of responsibility as well as an effective change of mentality and lifestyle.

The authorities called to make decisions concerning health and environmental risks sometimes find themselves facing a situation in which available scientific data are contradictory or quantitatively scarce. It may then be appropriate to base evaluations on the “precautionary principle”, which does not mean applying rules but certain guidelines aimed at managing the situation of uncertainty.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 466-470

Liberal

2015 Platform

The Liberal party promised to:

  • To attract investment and create good jobs in food processing, we will invest $160 million, over four years, in an Agri-Food Value Added Investment Fund. This will provide technical and marketing assistance to help food processors develop new value-added products that reflect changing tastes and market opportunities.
  • To support innovation in the agricultural sector, we will invest an additional $100 million, over four years, in agricultural research. To better allocate research funding, we will establish a transparent process that involves food producers.

New Democrat

  • No known published position.

 

Conservative

  • No known published position.

Green

Green Party MPs will work to:

  • Ban experimentation with planting and promotion of new GE crops. This includes a ban on further GE research (except for traditional seed selection and grafting)
  • Implement the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, which requires the adoption of new products to be guided by the precautionary principle, which balances the economic benefits of innovation with public health and ecological integrity;
  • Require mandatory labeling of all GE foods and food ingredients;
  • Support local, provincial, and territorial GE organism-free zones;
  • Prohibit field testing, commercial use, sale, and importation of ‘terminator’ (genetic use restriction) technologies;
  • Maintain the ban on GE wheat and oppose GE alfalfa; and
  • Place a moratorium on field-testing genetically modified trees while an expert panel of the Royal Society of Canada examines the risks.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.