The New Democratic Party (NDP; French: Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a social-democratic political party in Canada. The leader of the federal wing of the NDP is Thomas Mulcair, who was elected in the 2012 leadership election. He led the party through the 2015 federal election, and then lost a party leadership review on April 10, 2016. Mulcair will remain as leader, until his replacement is chosen at a leadership election to be held in 2017.

The NDP was founded in 1961 out of the merger of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) with the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC).

Provincial wings of the NDP form government in Alberta and British Columbia. Previously, provincial wings of the party have also formed governments in Nova Scotia (2009–2013), Ontario (1990–1995), Saskatchewan (1971–1982, 1991–2007), and Manitoba (1969–1977, 1981–1988, 1999–2016), and the territorial party formed the government in Yukon (the only territory with a partisan legislature) from 1985–1992 and 1996–2000.

The federal and provincial (or territorial) level NDPs are fully integrated, and have shared membership.

The NDP has often been Canada’s third largest party in Parliament, at times aligning itself with the Liberal Party of Canada, as it did during the minority government of Pierre Trudeau from 1972 to 1974. Following the 1993 federal election the NDP was reduced to fourth place behind the Bloc Québécois, a position it would maintain for most of the next two decades. In the 2011 federal election under the leadership of Jack Layton, the NDP won the second-most seats in the House of Commons, gaining the position of Official Opposition for the first time in the party’s history. The NDP then lost 59 seats during the 2015 federal election and fell back to third place in Parliament, though it is their second best seat count to date.




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