Issue

Stewardship of office

The Church’s view:

As an instrument of the State, public administration at any level — national, regional, community — is oriented towards the service of citizens: being at the service of its citizens, the State is the steward of the people's resources, which it must administer with a view to the common good.

Excessive bureaucratization is contrary to this vision and arises when institutions become complex in their organization and pretend to manage every area at hand. In the end they lose their effectiveness as a result of an impersonal functionalism, an overgrown bureaucracy, unjust private interests and an all-too-easy and generalized disengagement from a sense of duty.

The role of those working in public administration is not to be conceived as impersonal or bureaucratic, but rather as an act of generous assistance for citizens, undertaken with a spirit of service.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, § 412

Liberal

2015 Platform:

It is time to shine more light on government and ensure that it remains focused on the people it is meant to serve. Government and its information should be open by default. Data paid for by Canadians belongs to Canadians. We will restore trust in our democracy, and that begins with trusting Canadians.

New Democrat

2019 Platform:

New Democrats know who we work for. While others may be working to protect big polluters, big corporations, and the richest few, New Democrats are working for you every day. We stand up for families, workers and communities, in every corner of this country. And we are driven to form a government that works for you – and puts people at the heart of every decision we make.

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration:

The Conservative Party is guided by the following principles:

  • A belief in the freedom of the individual, including freedom of speech, worship and assembly;
  • A belief that a responsible government must be fiscally prudent and should be limited to those responsibilities which cannot be discharged reasonably by the individual or others;
  • A belief that it is the responsibility of individuals to provide for themselves, their families and their dependents, while recognizing that government must respond to those who require assistance and compassion;
  • A belief that the purpose of Canada as a nation state and its government, guided by reflective and prudent leadership, is to create a climate wherein individual initiative is rewarded, excellence is pursued, security and privacy of the individual is provided and prosperity is guaranteed by a free competitive market economy;

A belief that good and responsible government is attentive to the people it represents and has representatives who at all times conduct themselves in an ethical manner and display integrity, honesty and concern for the best interest of all.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

Those elected have a duty to work hard for their constituents, not their political parties. Citizens have a right to expect respect from those in office, and that respect must be reflected in openness, access to information and diligence in pursuit of the common good.

When our government is at its best, it represents all of us and brings us together to accomplish things we cannot accomplish alone. Our Parliament should be a model of statesmanship and cooperation, working for the good of all Canadians. It should deal creatively and constructively with issues and spend taxpayers’ money prudently. MPs should be elected through a fair voting system that ensures parties get a share of seats in Parliament that is equal to their share of the popular vote. Canadians should be proud of their government and trust that it is acting in their best interests.

Christian Heritage

2019 Platform:

  • Over past decades, we have seen a greater number of laws that provide extra protections to one group, leaving all Canadians who are not part of that group with lesser protection.
  • We have seen the rise of Human Rights Commissions, which have become censors of our thoughts, motives, beliefs and words.
  • We have seen laws passed based on exceptional circumstances rather than on normal circumstances. In an effort to avoid the dramatic and sometimes heartrending complications of exceptional circumstances, all Canadians have been forced to pay a price in lost freedoms.
  • We have watched governments encroaching into the homes of Canadians, the historic sphere of the family, and robbing families of their right to self-govern.

Peoples' Party

2019 Platform

Our Constitution is a great document. It outlines the powers of the federal government, the provinces, and the inherent freedoms that Canadians enjoy. But for too long, successive governments have treated the Constitution as a series of suggestions rather than the fundamental law of the land. Federal governments have dabbled in healthcare and education. Provincial governments have constructed barriers to the free flow of goods and services between provinces. And all levels of government have needlessly overreached into the lives of Canadians. This must stop. Politicians must respect the Constitution. This is the right plan.

Issue

Cooperation and respect between parties

The Church’s view:

Political parties have the task of fostering widespread participation and making public responsibilities accessible to all. Political parties are called to interpret the aspirations of civil society, orienting them towards the common good…

An authentic democracy is not merely the result of a formal observation of a set of rules but is the fruit of a convinced acceptance of the values that inspire democratic procedures: the dignity of every human person, the respect of human rights, commitment to the common good as the purpose and guiding criterion for political life. If there is no general consensus on these values, the deepest meaning of democracy is lost and its stability is compromised.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 413, 407

Liberal

No known published position.

The 2015 platform criticizes the previous prime minister, by name, approximately 68 times in 88 pages. We find no specific indications of intent to cooperate with other parties when appropriate, and no acknowledgement of the accomplishments of others.

New Democrat

No known published position.

The 2019 platform is replete with criticism of Liberal and Conservative parties. We find no specific indications of intent to cooperate with other parties when appropriate, and no acknowledgement of the accomplishments of others.

Conservative

No known published position.

The 2019 Policy Declaration refrains from specific criticisms of other parties or individuals. However, we find no specific indications of intent to cooperate with other parties when appropriate, and no acknowledgement of the accomplishments of others.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

When our government is at its best, it represents all of us and brings us together to accomplish things we cannot accomplish alone. Our Parliament should be a model of statesmanship and cooperation, working for the good of all Canadians… Canadians should be proud of their government and trust that it is acting in their best interest.

Green MPs will

  • Conduct ourselves respectfully in the House of Commons, through our commitment to never heckle;
  • Practice ‘high road’ politics, never using ad hominem attacks, but sticking to issues in debate;
  • Strive to find common ground with other parties, working across party lines in the public interest.

Christian Heritage

No known published position.

The 2019 Policy Declaration refrains from specific criticisms of other parties or individuals. However, we find no specific indications of intent to cooperate with other parties when appropriate, and no acknowledgement of the accomplishments of others.

Peoples' Party

No known published position.

2019 Platform repeatedly criticizes prior governments. We find no indication in the 2019 platform that the party intends to cooperate with other parties when appropriate, and no acknowledgement of the accomplishments of others

Issue

Role of Government; Proper Priorities of Government

The Church’s view:

As an instrument of the State, public administration at any level — national, regional, community — is oriented towards the service of citizens: being at the service of its citizens, the State is the steward of the people's resources, which it must administer with a view to the common good.

[W]hen institutions become complex in their organization and pretend to manage every area at hand… they lose their effectiveness as a result of an impersonal functionalism, an overgrown bureaucracy, unjust private interests and an all-too-easy and generalized disengagement from a sense of duty”.

The role of those working in public administration is not to be conceived as impersonal or bureaucratic, but rather as an act of generous assistance for citizens, undertaken with a spirit of service.

Those who are convinced that they know the truth and firmly adhere to it are considered unreliable from a democratic point of view, since they do not accept that truth is determined by the majority, or that it is subject to variation according to different political trends. It must be observed in this regard that if there is no ultimate truth to guide and direct political action, then ideas and convictions can easily be manipulated for reasons of power. As history demonstrates, a democracy without values easily turns into open or thinly disguised totalitarianism.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 412, 407

Liberal

Mission, Vision, & Values, 2019

A federal Liberal government is dedicated to the protection and enhancement of the lives of all Canadians and is committed to democratic governance, federalism, and the rule of law.

We are compassionate and responsible fiscal stewards, committed to providing a good and fair balance between the economy and social justice. Based on our values [of integrity, dignity, compassion, responsibility and reason], we work with Canadians to provide equal opportunity and security of the common good to all citizens.

We govern with the understanding that we have a responsibility towards the well-being of individuals, families, businesses, industries, and our environment. Therefore, we have a role in ensuring properly regulated fair and free markets and in preserving the Canadian identity in a global society.

We value education, learning, creativity and innovation as it leads to evidence-based public policy. We are open-minded, pragmatic, and supportive of intellectual curiosity and skepticism.

New Democrat

The Party Constitution, 2019

New Democrats celebrate Canada’s diversity and the deep histories, traditions and aspirations of all of its peoples. New Democrats believe in an intercultural integration model based on solidarity and harmonious exchanges among individuals of differing cultures.

New Democrats believe in freedom and democracy and in a positive role for democratically elected and accountable Parliaments, legislatures, and the governments responsible to them.

New Democrats affirm a role for government in helping to create the conditions for sustainable prosperity. We believe in a rules-based economy, nationally and globally, in which governments have the power to address the limitations of the market in addressing the common good by having the power to act in the public interest for social and economic justice, and for the integrity of the environment.

 

The 2019 Platform notes that:

Ethical and transparent government is about more than talking points – it’s about making sure that Canadians can have faith that their government is acting in their interests, not in the interest of rich, well-connected insiders. It’s about making sure that the system works for the many, not the few. And that who you are or how you vote makes no difference when it comes to the services you get.

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

The role of government is to:

  • Protect the lives and property of its citizens
  • Ensure equality of opportunity
  • Foster an environment where individuals and private initiative can prosper
  • Ensure the security of the nations’ borders and the safety of its citizens at home and abroad
  • Provide services to Canadians that cannot be provided more efficiently and effectively by individuals or by the private sector; and
  • Maintain and enhance the national infrastructure

Reforms:

Support seeking provincial support to amend the Constitution to include the right to property, and enactment of legislation requiring full compensation for those deprived of property by any act of the government.

Green

Green Vision, 2019

We believe that the function of governments is to foster fairness and equality in social aspects like nutrition, education, and justice. We want to serve you in a government that does the following:

  • encourages the creative, the industrious, the generous, and the sustainable
  • protects the weak, and
  • regulates corporate behavior to achieve these ends.

As the only party working within a triple bottom line (economic, ecological, and social) approach to every policy, our position on key environmental issues is clear.

Inter-party Respect

Vision Green, 2019, occasionally criticizes other parties, and other individuals by name.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Moral, social & economic education priorities

The Church’s position:

Modern times call for an intensive educational effort and a corresponding commitment on the part of all so that the quest for truth cannot be ascribed to the sum of different opinions, nor to one or another of these opinions.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, § 198

Liberal

  • No known published position.

 

New Democrat

  • No known published position.

Conservative

  • No known published position.

Green

  • No known published position.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Role of parties; independence of party members

The Church’s view:

Political parties have the task of fostering widespread participation and making public responsibilities accessible to all. Political parties are called to interpret the aspirations of civil society, orienting them towards the common good, offering citizens the effective possibility of contributing to the formulation of political choices. They must be democratic in their internal structure, and capable of political synthesis and planning.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 413

Liberal

2015 Platform

  • Promised to make free votes in the House of Commons standard practice.

‘For members of the Liberal Caucus, all votes will be free votes with the exception of those that implement the Liberal electoral platform; traditional confidence measures, like the budget; those that address our shared values and the protections guaranteed by the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

New Democrat

  • No known published position.

 

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

  • All votes in Parliament should be free, except for budget, main estimates, and core governmental initiatives.
  • On issues of moral conscience, such as abortion, marriage, and euthanasia, party acknowledges the diversity of personal convictions and the right of MPs to adopt positions in consultation with their constituents and vote freely

Green

Vision Green, 2019

  • Those elected have a duty to work hard for their constituents, not their political parties.
  • The cornerstone principles of our system of government are that Members of Parliament represent their constituents, not their political party; that all MPs are equal, with the Prime Minister first among equals; that the Prime Minister reports to Parliament, not the other way around; and that Parliament controls the public purse.
  • We will strive to find common ground with other parties, working across party lines in the public interest.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Truth in Government; keeping of campaign promises

You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.

(The 8th Commandment)

The Church’s view:

Living in the truth has special significance in social relationships. In fact, when the coexistence of human beings within a community is founded on truth, it is ordered and fruitful, and it corresponds to their dignity as persons[432]. The more people and social groups strive to resolve social problems according to the truth, the more they distance themselves from abuses and act in accordance with the objective demands of morality.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §198

Liberal

  • No known specific published position.
  • 2015 Platform specifically criticizes prior governments for failing to honor promises.
  • Promised firmly in 2015 platform to end 1st-past-the-post election structure. In early 2017, instructed Democratic Institutions Minister that ‘changing the electoral system will not be in your mandate’ (Global News, 2017)

New Democrat

  • No known specific published position.
  • 2019 Platform specifically criticizes prior governments repeatedly for failing to honor promises.

Conservative

  • No known published position.

 

Green

  • No known specific published position.
  • Vision Green, 2019 criticizes prior governments for failing to honor promises

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.
  • 2019 Platform specifically criticizes prior governments

Issue

Development of government policy proposals

 The Church’s view:

 An authentic democracy is not merely the result of a formal observation of a set of rules but is the fruit of a convinced acceptance of the values that inspire democratic procedures: the dignity of every human person, the respect of human rights, commitment to the common good as the purpose and guiding criterion for political life. If there is no general consensus on these values, the deepest meaning of democracy is lost and its stability is compromised.

In their specific areas (drafting laws, governing, setting up systems of checks and balances), elected officials must strive to seek and attain that which will contribute to making civil life proceed well in its overall course. Those who govern have the obligation to answer to those governed, but this does not in the least imply that representatives are merely passive agents of the electors. The control exercised by the citizens does not in fact exclude the freedom that elected officials must enjoy in order to fulfil their mandate with respect to the objectives to be pursued.

These do not depend exclusively on special interests, but in a much greater part on the function of synthesis and mediation that serve the common good, one of the essential and indispensable goals of political authority.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 407, 409

Liberal

No known specific published position; 2015 Platform calls for multi-party and community consultations in various circumstances; however Catholic Conscience finds no specific references to policy-development procedures, or commitment to inter-party cooperation for the common good.

2015 Platform

For Parliament to work best, its members must be free to do what they have been elected to do: represent their communities and hold the government to account. Government must always stay focused on serving Canadians and solving their problems.

  • Government should base its policies on facts, not make facts to suit a preferred policy.
  • Specifies that labor laws, public safety policy, and Canada’s valuable aid initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) should be driven by evidence and outcomes, not ideology.
  • Promised not to prorogue Parliament to avoid difficult political circumstances.
  • Promised to change rules in Commons to end use of omnibus bills
  • On May 18, 2016, PM Trudeau manhandled two opposition members in order to rush final reading of bill C-14, in order to amend the criminal code to allow physician-assisted death.
  • Promised to ensure Parliamentary committees’ are able to consult expert witnesses and access reliable, non-partisan research
  • Promised to strengthen the role of Parliamentary committee chairs and allow elections by secret ballot
  • Promised to bar Ministers and Parliamentary Secretaries from voting on committees

New Democrat

No known published position.

2019 Platform calls for community consultations in various circumstances, and is highly critical of other parties. Catholic Conscience find no specific references to policy-development procedures, or commitment to inter-party cooperation for the common good.

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

  • The Conservative Party believes true democracy involves vigorous participation by all citizens in the affairs of the country. We will commit to broad consultation with citizens across Canada to further the ongoing policy development process and ensure Members of Parliament have the fullest input from all Canadians.

Catholic Conscience finds no specific commitment to inter-party cooperation for the common good.

Green

Vision Green 2019

The cornerstone principles of our system of government are that Members of Parliament represent their constituents, not their political party; that all MPs are equal, with the Prime Minister first among equals; that the Prime Minister reports to Parliament, not the other way around; and that Parliament controls the public purse.

We will strive to find common ground with other parties, working across party lines in the public interest.

We start with a vision of the society we want.

  • Does a proposed policy or action advance the common good?
  • Does it advance global peace and security?
  • Does it address the needs of children?
  • Does it ensure Canada’s continued quality of life and economic health?
  • Does it make families more secure?
  • Does it protect, enhance, and restore the life support systems of the planet?
  • Does it promote systems − cultural, institutional, and technological − that are resilient and capable of adapting to shocks in a more unpredictable world?

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

 

Issue

Timing of major program rollouts: manipulation of polls prior to elections

The Church’s view:

An authentic democracy is not merely the result of a formal observation of a set of rules but is the fruit of a convinced acceptance of the values that inspire democratic procedures: the dignity of every human person, the respect of human rights, commitment to the common good as the purpose and guiding criterion for political life. If there is no general consensus on these values, the deepest meaning of democracy is lost and its stability is compromised.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 407

Liberal

  • No known published position.

 

New Democrat

  • No known published position.

Conservative

  • No known published position.

Green

  • No known published position.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Gender identity; LGBTx

The Church’s view

Faced with theories that consider gender identity as merely the cultural and social product of the interaction between the community and the individual, independent of personal sexual identity without any reference to the true meaning of sexuality, the Church does not tire of repeating her teaching: Everyone, man and woman, should acknowledge and accept his sexual identity. Physical, moral and spiritual difference and complementarities are oriented towards the goods of marriage and the flourishing of family life. The harmony of the couple and of society depends in part on the way in which the complementarities, needs and mutual support between the sexes are lived out.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 224

Liberal

2015 Platform

We will:

  • Protect trans-gender rights under the Human Rights Act and hate speech laws;
  • Allow blood donation by homosexual males

Maintained ban on homosexual male blood donation (CBC News, 10 April 2018)

New Democrat

2019 Platform

  • Promise to ban conversion therapy for minors, work with provinces and territories to eliminate it in all parts of the country.
  • Promise to end ban on blood donation by homosexual males
  • Promise to ensure equal access to gender confirming surgery, with coverage by public health plans
  • Promise to establish a clear and permanent plan for resettlement of LGBTQI2S+ refugees in Canada
  • Promise to end employment discrimination by adding sexual orientation, gender identity and expression to the Employment Equity Act

Conservative

  • No known published position.

 

Green

Vision Green, 2019

In 1996, the Green Party of Canada became the first federal party to officially support the inclusion of same-sex couples in civil marriage, and we are pleased that this issue is now settled.

Our vision is of a world free from discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression, a world in which difference is accepted and even celebrated.

  • Existing legislation and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms prohibit discrimination. However, we must be vigilant to ensure these laws are respected.
  • In 1996, the Green Party of Canada became the first federal party to officially support the inclusion of same-sex couples in civil marriage, and we are pleased that this issue is now settled.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Support public education to end prejudice and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity;
  • End the targeting by Canada Customs of LGBT bookstores and other LGBT businesses;
  • ‘Improve protections for trans people’ and raise awareness of the policies for inclusion, including respecting pronoun choices; and
  • Ensure Canada advocates internationally for an end to state-sanctioned discrimination and violence against LGBT people.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

  • Party’s “policies will not include anything to do with abortion or gender identity."

(CTV News, 10 Jan 2019)

Issue

The un-included and marginalized: seniors, eldercare, the homebound, and the disabled

The Church’s view:

…being born in love and growing in love, solidarity belongs to the family as a constitutive and structural element. This is a solidarity that can take on the features of service and attention to those who live in poverty and need, to orphans, the handicapped, the sick, the elderly, to those who are in mourning, to those with doubts, to those who live in loneliness…

Love is also expressed in the generous attention shown to the elderly who live in families: their presence can take on great value. They are an example of connections between generations, a resource for the well-being of the family and of the whole of society…

If the elderly are in situations where they experience suffering and dependence, not only do they need health care services and appropriate assistance, but — and above all — they need to be treated with love.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 222, 246

Liberal

2018 Policy resolutions

  • Resolved to establish a Ministry of Seniors, with a mandate to protect and ‘vigorously promote the needs and interests of seniors, as well as the value of seniors to civil society,’ and establish a national seniors strategy that defines common goals and standards.

2015 Platform

  • Prioritize investment in seniors’ facilities
  • Allocate $190 million per year to Introduce more flexible & inclusive benefit available to any Canadian who cares for seriously ill family member
  • Eliminate $1000 Labour Market Impact Assessment for families needing caregivers to help family members with physical or mental disabilities.
  • Work with provinces and territories to develop regulated companies to hire caregivers on behalf of families, to provide choices in case of bad service or abuse.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

  • Work with provinces, territories, and stakeholders to amend Canada Health Act to include national standards for home care and long-term care
  • Create national dementia strategy
  • Amend Accessibility Act to cover all federal agencies equally, and provide power to enforce standards
  • Review income security and employment programs for the disabled
  • Create affordable, accessible housing in communities across Canada
  • Develop and implement national autism strategy
  • Develop elder abuse prevention plan
  • Make Canada Caregiver Tax Credit refundable
  • Fight seniors’ isolation by working with cities to make transit more affordable and convenient, create more community recreation spaces, and support intergenerational co-housing programs

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

  • Policies must be developed to enable more seniors to remain in their homes, rather than more expensive institutions supported by taxpayers.
  • We support tax incentives for non-professional caregivers to look after the elderly or disabled at home
  • We favor tougher penalties for elder abuse
  • We support a National Disability Act to promote reasonable access to medical care, education, employment, and housing for the disabled

Green

Vision Green, 2019

Homebound

  • Long-term care should not be the only housing and care choice. In a Balance of Care model, more care can be provided in a cost-effective manner by home and community support services.

The Elderly

  • Seek creation of age-friendly communities, where active living and well-being are promoted, where seniors have financial security, and where housing and transportation needs are met.
  • Develop, in collaboration with provincial and territorial governments, a National Home Care Policy that incorporates and improves upon existing policies affecting eldercare, including but not restricted to ensuring couples needing support and care can continue to live together, economic allowances (such as tax rebates), living choices, transportation, and respite care;
  • Review, in collaboration with provincial and territorial governments, policies to ensure that citizens and law enforcement officials recognize and prevent elder abuse where possible, and proceed with appropriate charges and consequences where it has occurred;

Disabled

Canadians with disabilities are more likely to live in poverty than other Canadians, as a result of both exclusion and lack of support.

  • We endorse the Basic Income Program proposed by the Caledon Institute, which will actually save the government money. We urge the adoption of this income security program for people with disabilities as soon as possible as an interim measure until a full poverty eradication is established.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Work to create a Canada Disabilities Act (CDA) to correct confusion resulting from the multiplicity of acts, standards, policies, and programs that prevail;
  • Support a national equipment fund to provide equipment such as wheelchairs, etc. to assist persons with disabilities with tools needed to fully participate in work and community life
  • Invest in social housing adapted as necessary to meet particular needs, with both rental and purchase options.
  • Provide federal health transfer payments to provinces and territories directed to rehabilitation for those who have become disabled, e.g. loss of limbs etc.;

Enforce the Employment Equity Act to ensure that persons with disabilities have equal opportunity to long-term employment and advancement.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Criteria for nomination of candidates

The Church’s view:

Political parties have the task of fostering widespread participation and making public responsibilities accessible to all. Political parties are called to interpret the aspirations of civil society, orienting them towards the common good, offering citizens the effective possibility of contributing to the formulation of political choices. They must be democratic in their internal structure, and capable of political synthesis and planning.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, § 413

Liberal

Liberal Party of Canada, Rules for Candidate Selection, 2019

  • Nominees are screened and approved by National Campaign Chair and Green Light Committee.

The Party Leader has authority to designate any person to be a Candidate in any election, without need for Nomination Meeting as otherwise prescribed.

  • In 2015 Party Leader Justin Trudeau barred pro-life candidates from running as members of the Liberal Party.

New Democrat

  • No known published position.

Conservative

Candidate Nomination Rules, 2017

  • Applicants must submit letter of intent to Executive Director.
  • Applicant must be interviewed by Candidate Nomination Committee
  • Nominees will be interviewed by a nominating committee appointed by the Electoral District Association.
  • Nominees approved by committee are approved by National Candidate Selection Committee

Green

Green Party constitution and regulations:

The Green Party objects to any system that allows top-down control within parties of the nomination process for candidates.

 

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Electoral structure & reform; voting process

The Church values the democratic system inasmuch as it ensures the participation of citizens in making political choices, guarantees to the governed the possibility both of electing and holding accountable those who govern them, and of replacing them through peaceful means when appropriate…

Those who are convinced that they know the truth and firmly adhere to it are considered unreliable from a democratic point of view, since they do not accept that truth is determined by the majority, or that it is subject to variation according to different political trends. It must be observed in this regard that if there is no ultimate truth to guide and direct political action, then ideas and convictions can easily be manipulated for reasons of power.

As history demonstrates, a democracy without values easily turns into open or thinly disguised totalitarianism.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 406, 407

Liberal

  • Promised in 2015 platform to end 1st-past-the-post election structure.
  • In early 2016, instructed Democratic Institutions Minister that ‘changing the electoral system will not be in your mandate’ (Global News, 2017)

======

2015 Platform:

  • Promised to restore independence of Elections Commissioner, and ensure resources exist for investigation of voter fraud and suppression.
  • Promised to cap spending by parties, and ensure that spending is limited between elections, as well as during elections.
  • Promised to add party platform costing analysis to mandate of Parliamentary Budget Officer, to provide reports for next election.
  • Promised to establish an independent commission to organize party leaders’ debates for education and engagement of voters, and to end partisan gamesmanship.
  • Promised to work with provinces and territories to register students as part of high school or CEGEP curriculum, to ‘mandate Elections Canada to stay in contact with young persons if they change address after graduation,’ and to support Elections Canada in proactively registering Canadians from groups with low voter turnout.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

  • Committed to mixed-member proportional representation, as first mandate in government.
  • Will lower the voting age to 16
  • Will require social media platforms to flag and remove fraudulent accounts, respond promptly to hate speech and threats
  • Will strengthen privacy protections

 

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

  • No electoral system should be endorsed that weakens the link between MPs and their constituents, or which will create unmanageably large ridings, or will strengthen the control of the party machinery over individual MPs.
  • Any electoral reform should be subject to a national referendum.
  • Public funding of federal political parties should be limited to that presently provided by the Elections Canada Act.
  • The Elections Canada Act should be amended to prohibit third parties from accepting foreign funding for domestic political activity, prevent third party collaboration during election campaigns, and should include stiffer penalties

Green

Vision Green, 2019

The first-past-the-post electoral system unfairly punishes Conservative voters in cities, Liberal and NDP voters in the west, and Green voters throughout Canada. Ultimately, it does not produce governments that reflect the diversity of people in Canada, nor does it do a good job of accurately reflecting voters’ wishes. Canada is one of the last few free and prosperous nations in the world to still use the antiquated first-past-the-post voting system.

The Green Party of Canada believes that Canada must change, immediately, to a proportional voting system that fairly and directly translates all votes into representation in Parliament.

We also believe that democracy requires reduced financial barriers to running for political office and lowering the voter age to 16 to encourage more youth participation.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Legislate the end of first-past-the-post voting;
  • Empower a Democracy Commission to engage Canadians from coast to coast in a public inquiry into the interwoven and anti-democratic trends within Canada:
  • The unhealthy power of the Prime Minister’s Office;
  • The lack of scope for independent action of individual MPs;
  • The use of prorogation to avoid political embarrassment, in violation of Parliamentary practice and tradition;
  • Recommendations of the Commission will be presented as options to Canadian voters.
  • Adhere to fixed election dates permitting political stability and fair elections;
  • Slash the PMO budget by 50%.

Christian Heritage

 

Peoples' Party

 

Issue

Transparency

The Church’s view:

Information is among the principal instruments of democratic participation. Participation without an understanding of the situation of the political community, the facts and the proposed solutions to problems is unthinkable.

[W]hen the coexistence of human beings within a community is founded on truth, it is ordered and fruitful, and it corresponds to their dignity as persons. The more people and social groups strive to resolve social problems according to the truth, the more they distance themselves from abuses and act in accordance with the objective demands of morality.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 414, 198

Liberal

2015 Platform

It is time to shine more light on government and ensure that it remains focused on the people it is meant to serve. Government and its information should be open by default. Data paid for by Canadians belongs to Canadians. We will restore trust in our democracy, and that begins with trusting Canadians.

We will make government information more accessible:

  • Amend Access to Information Act to include all government data & information in machine-readable digital format; including PM and Ministers’ offices, Parliament and courts.
  • Enable the Information Commissioner to issue binding orders for disclosure.
  • Implement all-party security oversight committee.
  • Will increase online access to information and create single point of access for all gov’t services.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

We are driven to form a government that works for you – and puts people at the heart of every decision we make.

Many Canadians have a hard time believing government can be ethical and accountable to voters. And that’s no wonder, given the cynicism inspired by prior governments.

Ethical and transparent government is about more than talking points – it’s about making sure that Canadians can have faith that their government is acting in their interests… Ethical government is essential for a healthy democracy, and when people lose that trust, we all suffer.

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

  • Government should ensure transparency, accuracy and confidence in its finances by empowering the Auditor General
  • The auditor General, Chief Electoral Officer, Comptroller General, Ethics Commissioner and Privacy Commissioner should be appointed by and report to Parliament

Green

Vision Green, 2019

Green MPs will set the standard for transparency and accountability (we were the first to scan all original receipts and post all expenses on our websites);

The federal government is the largest customer for a wide range of goods and services in Canada. Our government should ensure it gets the best value for every dollar spent, but that means considering criteria that are essential to developing a just and sustainable society.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Ensure transparency in purchasing decisions by making that information available for public oversight
  • Update the Access to Information Act to permit greater transparency of government activities;

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Accountability, conflicts of interest, & oversight

The Church’s view:

The Magisterium recognizes the validity of the principle concerning the division of powers in a State: “it is preferable that each power be balanced by other powers and by other spheres of responsibility which keep it within proper bounds. This is the principle of the ‘rule of law', in which the law is sovereign, and not the arbitrary will of individuals”.

In the democratic system, political authority is accountable to the people. Representative bodies must be subjected to effective social control. This control can be carried out above all in free elections which allow the selection and change of representatives. The obligation on the part of those elected to give an accounting of their work — which is guaranteed by respecting electoral terms — is a constitutive element of democratic representation.

Among the deformities of the democratic system, political corruption is one of the most serious.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 408, 411

Liberal

2015 Platform promised

  • that government would ‘not interfere with the work of government watchdogs,’ and would ensure that all of the officers of Parliament, including the Parliamentary Budget Officer are properly funded and accountable only to Parliament, not ‘the government of the day.’
  • to improve consistency and clarity of government finances by ensuring consistency between accounting of estimates and public accounts, providing costing analysis for all proposed legislation, and requiring Parliamentary approval on borrowing plans.
  • to introduce a new Prime Minister’s Question Period to improve direct accountability of PM. Will empower speaker to challenge and sanction members during question period, in order to allow more time for questions. Will consider use of online technology to make Question Period more relevant.
  • To make disclosure of Parliamentary expenses mandatory for all MPs, and make meetings of Board of Internal Economy open ‘except in rare cases requiring confidentiality.
  • To appoint an Advertising Commissioner to assist Auditor General in oversight of gov’t advertising, by reviewing proposed advertisements in advance to ensure they are non-partisan and relate to legitimate public interest

New Democrat

2019 Platform

  • Create and enforce tougher penalties for conflicts of interest and abuse of public trust
  • Ban cash-for-access events
  • Convene public inquiries as necessary
  • Prohibit corporations facing criminal charges from lobbying elected officials
  • Ensure prosecutions of corporate crime are free of political interference
  • Introduce ethical social and environmental screens on government procurement to eliminate corruption and needless pollution

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration:

  • Strengthen internal audit & comptrollership functions of government to confirm delivery matches intent of program
  • Auditor General should be able to table reports when Parliament is not sitting, and make them public

Green

Vison Green, 2019

The Green Party believes in the decentralization of decision-making powers and in open, honest government. Green Party MPs will:

  • Amend the Accountability Act to ensure that all those who monitor government are selected at arm’s length, to eliminate blanket exemptions on public release of government documents, and to guarantee transparency and openness for all government activities;
  • Enact effective whistle-blower protection for public and private sector employees;
  • Institute a Code of Conduct and an independent complaints process to ensure that public funds are not used for pre-election partisan purposes;
  • Institute mandatory training in ethics for MPs and their staff, requiring all MPs and staff to take in-house training on the basics of good management and ethics in Parliament;
  • Reform the appointments system to discourage patronage by establishing an independent agency for ensuring that appointments to government tribunals, boards, and senior positions are merit based
  • Strengthen the mandates of Independent Officers of Parliament, including the Auditor General and the Information Commissioner;
  • Make the current Ethics Commissioner accountable to Parliament, rather than the Prime Minister;
  • Provide Parliamentarians with independent regulatory audits;
  • Strengthen the rules of conduct for lobbying, and make all lobbyists’ government interactions public.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Government Contracts & Procurement

The Church’s view:

Purchasing power must be used in the context of the moral demands of justice and solidarity, and in that of precise social responsibilities… This responsibility gives to [purchasers] the possibility, thanks to the wider circulation of information, of directing the behaviour of producers, through preferences — individual and collective — given to [certain] products… rather than to of others, taking into account not only the price and quality of what is being purchased but also the presence of correct working conditions in the company as well as the level of protection of the natural environment in which it operates.

Among the deformities of the democratic system, political corruption is one of the most serious.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 359, 411

Liberal

2015 Platform

For the benefit of workers, we will reinstate a modernized and inclusive fair wages policy for federal procurement.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

  • Previous governments have failed to use Canadian government infrastructure procurement to support Canada’s manufacturing economy, and have often negotiated trade deals that put domestic procurement policies at risk.
  • New Democrats will require the use of Canadian-made steel and aluminum across the country.

Conservative

2018 Policy declaration

The Conservative Party believes in streamlining, reducing timelines and removing bureaucratic impediments from the procurement interests of the Canadian Forces and the Department of National Defence.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

The federal government is the largest customer for a wide range of goods and services in Canada. Our government should ensure it gets the best value for every dollar spent, but that means considering criteria that are essential to developing a just and sustainable society.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Require that government purchase Canadian-made products and services wherever possible
  • if imports are necessary, procure certified fair-trade goods
  • Require that all government departments and agencies incorporate a ‘triple bottom line’ (social, economic, and environmental cost/benefit) analysis in purchasing goods and services;
  • Require that all government departments and agencies meet the highest environmental standards;
  • Ensure transparency in purchasing decisions by making that information available for public oversight

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Senate

The Church recognizes the validity of the principle concerning the division of powers in a State: it is preferable that each power be balanced by other powers and by other spheres of responsibility which keep it within proper bounds. This is the principle of the ‘rule of law', in which the law is sovereign, and not the arbitrary will of individuals.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 408

Liberal

2015 Platform

  • Acknowledges need to end partisanship in Senate. Promised to create a non-partisan, merit-based process to advise Prime Minister on Senate appointments.
  • Believes government should focus its efforts on priorities of Canadians, and not negotiations for Constitutional amendments.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

  • We undertake to work with provinces to abolish the Senate

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

  • Supports election of Senators
  • Senate should provide equal representation of provinces and territories, to balance regional population distributions and safeguard region interests

Green

Vision Green, 2019

We will empower a Democracy Commission to engage Canadians from coast to coast in a public inquiry into the interwoven and anti-democratic trends within Canada, including the abuse by the Senate of its role of ‘sober, second thought’ in voting down bills approved by the House.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Freedom of conscience; civil liberties

The Church’s view:

Emphasis is given to the paramount value of the right to religious freedom: all men are to be immune from coercion on the part of individuals or of social groups and of any human power, in such wise that no one is to be forced to act in a manner contrary to his own beliefs, whether privately or publicly, whether alone or in association with others, within due limits.

It is a grave duty of conscience not to cooperate, not even formally, in practices which, although permitted by civil legislation, are contrary to the Law of God. Such cooperation in fact can never be justified, not by invoking respect for the freedom of others nor by appealing to the fact that it is foreseen and required by civil law. No one can escape the moral responsibility for actions taken, and all will be judged by God himself based on this responsibility (cf. Rom 2:6; 14:12).

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 155, 399

Liberal

The current Liberal government:

  • Used vetting process to bar pro-life party members from standing for Parliament (National Post, 7 May 2014)
  • Required healthcare professionals to make referrals for abortions and Socially-Assisted Death (SAD)
  • Denied funds for hiring of interns to organizations that oppose abortion

2015 Platform

Develop alternative legislation to Bill C-51, including guarantees of charter rights, and rights to protest and advocate; require warrants for surveillance of Canadians; require a statutory review of the full Anti-Terrorism Act after three years; and create new Office of Community Outreach and Counter-radicalization Coordinator.

New Democrat

Party Constitution

New Democrats believe in freedom and democracy and in a positive role for democratically elected and accountable Parliaments, legislatures, and the governments responsible to them.

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

The Conservative Party:

  • Promotes policies and legislation designed to protect freedoms of speech and expression in Canada
  • On issues of moral conscience, such as abortion, marriage, and euthanasia, party acknowledges the diversity of personal convictions and the right of MPs to adopt positions in consultation with their constituents and vote freely
  • Supports conscience rights for doctors, nurses, and other to refuse to participate in or make referrals for abortion, assisted suicide, or euthanasia
  • Supports right of faith-based organizations to refuse use of facilities to individuals or groups (including unions) holding views that are contrary to their believes without fear of sanctions or harassment.
  • Confirms that it is unethical and wrong to require applicants for government-funded programs to sign values attestations to be eligible for funding
  • Opposes all forms of compelled speech
  • Opposes creation of religious or cultural courts in Canada

Green

Vision Green, 2019

  • The essence of the Global Green Charter is respect. Respect for one another is detailed in the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, the subsequent specific Agreements and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. These Agreements recognize the equality and importance of all individuals and the right of free speech, assembly, and the provision of basic needs… Rights also entail taking responsibility as an individual within his or her community and promoting and protecting these rights at the national level, for the abuse of rights anywhere in the world impacts our own security and sense of dignity as human beings.

Green Party MPs will:

Support changes to the Criminal Code to allow for physicians to assist death in limited cases and circumstances involving adults with full mental capacity to consent, who find their situation unbearable.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

2019 Platform

Freedom of Expression

The rights of Canadians to freely hold and express beliefs are being eroded at an alarming speed.

  • In 2018, the Liberal government denied summer job funding to organizations, including charities, that would not sign an attestation supporting abortion.
  • It also passed bill C-16 as part of a trend to force Canadians to express support for the existence of various gender identities beyond the biological categories of male and female, and to use pronouns demanded by those who identify with these other genders.
  • In addition to these assaults on conscience, the government launched a series of regulatory attacks on free speech on the internet and is pressuring social media companies, which are already censoring speech that isn’t politically correct, to crack down even more.
  • In what appears to be a first step towards restricting our right to criticize some religions, it adopted M-103, a motion that condemns religious discrimination but only specifically mentions one religion, Islam, and without defining the term “islamophobia.”
  • Finally, on university campuses, a growing number of faculty and administrators—those who should be fighting for open debate of controversial ideas—have become aggressive advocates for censorship.

Fact

  • History and social scientific research show that freedom of conscience and freedom of expression, when maximally protected, advance the intellectual life of a nation, foster greater ideological diversity and societal understanding, and nurture other freedoms necessary for a successful democracy.
  • This is why Section 2 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees citizens freedom of conscience and religion, as well as freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication.

Our Plan

  • Canadians should be able to enjoy maximum freedom of conscience and expression as guaranteed in Section 2 of the Charter.

A People’s Party Government will:

  • Restrict the definition of hate speech in the Criminal Code to expression which explicitly advocates the use of force against identifiable groups or persons based on protected criteria such as religion, race, ethnicity, sex, or sexual orientation.
  • Repeal any existing legislation or regulation curtailing free speech on the internet and prevent the reinstatement of section 13 of the Canadian Human Rights Act.
  • Ensure that Canadians can exercise their freedom of conscience to its fullest extent as it is intended under the Charter and are not discriminated against because of their moral convictions.
  • Withhold federal funding from any post-secondary institution shown to be violating the freedom of expression of its students or faculty.

Issue

Courts, Crimes, Justice & Punishment

You shall not steal.

(The 7th Commandment)

The Church’s view:

In order to protect the common good, the lawful public authority must exercise the right and the duty to inflict punishments according to the seriousness of the crimes committed.

The State has the twofold responsibility to discourage behaviour that is harmful to human rights and the fundamental norms of civil life, and to repair, through the penal system, the disorder created by criminal activity…

Punishment does not serve merely the purpose of defending the public order and guaranteeing the safety of persons; it becomes as well an instrument for the correction of the offender, a correction that also takes on the moral value of expiation when the guilty party voluntarily accepts his punishment.

There is a twofold purpose here. On the one hand, encouraging the re-insertion of the condemned person into society; on the other, fostering a justice that reconciles, a justice capable of restoring harmony in social relationships disrupted by the criminal act committed.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, § 402

Liberal

2018 Policy Resolutions

  • Resolved to repeal laws pertaining to prostitution; address ‘true problems’ facing sex workers by working to increase their access to sexual health clinics, counseling, and improve their relationship with local authorities.

2015 Platform

Canada is fundamentally a safe and peaceful nation. Our plan will keep Canadians safe and protect their rights, without resorting to the politics of fear or letting ideology trump evidence in decision-making.

  • We will work with all parties in the House of Commons to ensure that appointment of Supreme Court Justices is transparent, inclusive, and accountable to Canadians. Will ensure that the process involves consultation with authorities throughout the legal profession, and ensure that appointees are functionally bilingual.
  • We will decriminalize Canada’s current system of marijuana prohibition does not work. It does not prevent young people from using marijuana and too many Canadians end up with criminal records for possessing small amounts of the drug.
  • We will legalize, regulate, and restrict access to marijuana, and create new, stronger laws to punish more severely those who provide marijuana to minors, how who operate motor vehicles under marijuana influence, and those who sell outside the regulatory framework.
  • Will create a federal / provincial / territorial task force, with input from experts in public health, and substance abuse experts, design a new system of strict marijuana sales and distribution, with appropriate excise taxes applied.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

Our justice system is overburdened, slow and doesn’t treat everyone fairly. The status quo isn’t serving Canadians, and it’s time to change it to make the justice system fairer and better able to protect Canadians.

A New Democrat government will:

  • Restore the independence of the judiciary by reducing reliance on mandatory minimums and allowing judges to have greater discretion in sentencing. As we work towards reconciliation, we will and uphold the importance of community- based and restorative justice approaches.
  • Proactively expunge criminal records of Canadians with minor cannabis possession convictions
  • Increase legal aid funding across the country

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

  • An independent judiciary is a vital safeguard against arbitrary use of power by the state.
  • We Oppose creation of religious or cultural courts in Canada
  • Supreme Court nominees should be ratified by free vote in Parliament, following approval by Commons justice committee.
  • Support legislation to remove authority of Canadian Human Rights Commission and Human Rights Tribunal to regulate, investigate, or adjudicate complaints under Sec. 13 of the Human Rights Act.
  • Support implementation of cost controls and income-earning opportunities for individual inmates and for prison institutions, in order to reduce taxpayer burden and to provide job training and experience.
  • We believe that those convicted of more than one serious crime should serve their sentences consecutively rather than concurrently.
  • Supports legislative enactment of a Charter of Victims’ Rights
  • The criminal justice system’s ability to assess dangerous offenders should be enhanced, so that offenders are not released until they are no longer a threat to society.
  • A registry of convicted dangerous offenders, including dangerous sex offenders, should be maintained. Dangerous offenders should provide mandatory DNA sampling, accessibility to all police and parole services, and incarceration of registered repeat offenders awaiting trial.
  • Mandatory sentencing and parole release requirements should be strengthened.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

We are dedicated to responsible governance that protects our country and our fellow Canadians. This commitment shapes our approach to tackling crime, delivering justice, reducing recidivism, protecting Canada’s borders, and combating terrorism.

A responsible government will see the big picture and have well-integrated policies that truly prevent crime and truly protect our communities.

  • To keep young people from becoming criminals, we support programs to alleviate poverty, to legalize marijuana, to increase physical fitness and sport.
  • Violent offenders must face more serious consequences, in setting bail, sentencing, and parole terms.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Repeal all criminal laws creating mandatory minimum sentences;
  • Review the Young Offenders Act to ensure it is not an inducement to youth crime, while retaining its principle, that youth should not be treated as hardened criminals;
  • Revise laws to increase penalties for domestic violence and ensure protection for the victims of domestic violence;
  • Improve the Victims Bill of Rights to include provisions ensuring victims are fully informed of their rights (Marsy’s Law);
  • Ensure meaningful and appropriate resources are available for restorative justice and community healing programs;
  • Oppose any attempts to privatize prisons in Canada;
  • Combat online sexual exploitation of children.
  • Focus on education and meaningful work for offenders while they are incarcerated in order that they might pay at least part of the costs of their crime and housing in jail, as well as become better prepared for reintegration.
  • Restore, wherever possible, the prison farm system;
  • Restore merit as the primary criterion for selection of judges politically-balanced review panels.

Sex Trade Workers

The Green Party of Canada has advocated for comprehensive Criminal Code reform that removes criminal sanctions and develops regulations for legal prostitution between consenting adults.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Repeal C-36;
  • Protect the rights of sex trade workers and ensure their safety;
  • Bifurcate issues of sex trade and human trafficking, and enhance the fight against human trafficking;
  • Provide greater investment in addiction counseling;
  • Provide more robust funding for social services to help those driven to prostitution by economic deprivation;
  • Provide enhanced counseling and educational services to assist people trapped in the sex trade through poverty or addiction;
  • Provide financial assistance for sex trade workers who want to find different employment

Access to Justice

Canada seems to have a two-tiered justice system. Middle- and lower-class Canadians are increasingly unable to adequately defend themselves due to the cost and complexity of Canada’s judicial processes.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Working with provincial governments to establish a comprehensive National Legal Aid plan that will provide stable, long-term funding;
  • Simplify matters within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal Court of Canada or Tax Court (e.g. intellectual property, income tax appeals, CPP and disability claims).
  • Increase the use of alternative dispute resolution processes, such as mediation and collaborative lawyering, in family and civil courts to reduce conflicts in relationship breakdowns.

White Collar Crime

We seem to have a two-tiered justice system where people with money can work the system for their own advantage.

  • Economic criminal investigations are often quite complex and require highly specialized legal teams and sophisticated information management. Federal prosecutors must be given enough resources to build up the necessary legal teams to conduct effective and timely prosecutions of these commercial fraudsters.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Call for the creation of a Canadian Securities Crime Unit within the RCMP.
  • Create and fund a criminal justice taskforce focusing on the nexus between money laundering, securities fraud and financing terrorism;
  • Amend the laws to provide for stiffer sentencing and greater restitution in white collar crimes. It is important that the sentences fit the severity of the crimes
  • Improve access to lifestyle and tax evidence for those suspected of involvement in organized crime.

Christian Heritage

2019 Platform

Justice is more than crime and punishment, although that remains an important part of true justice. It includes equal protection of all Canadians under our laws.

True justice does not allow partiality or special protections for any individual or group of people.

  • Our justice platform focuses on restitution for property crimes and public safety from violent crime.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

 

Issue

Police & Public Safety; Emergency Preparedness

The Church’s view:

The activity of offices charged with establishing criminal responsibility, which is always personal in character, must strive to be a meticulous search for truth and must be conducted in full respect for the dignity and rights of the human person; this means guaranteeing the rights of the guilty as well as those of the innocent. The juridical principle by which punishment cannot be inflicted if a crime has not first been proven must be borne in mind.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, § 404

Liberal

2015 Platform

Police

  • We will introduce a $300,000 public safety officer compensation benefit to be paid to the families of fire fighters, police officers, and paramedics killed or permanently disabled in the line of duty.
  • We will work with the provinces and territories to develop a coordinated national action plan on post-traumatic stress disorder, which disproportionately affects public safety officers.
  • We will restore funding for Canada’s four heavy urban search and rescue teams, to ensure swift and effective response to emergencies like ice storms, floods, wildfires, and building collapses.

We will re-open the Maritime Rescue Sub-center in St. John’s, and the Kitsilano Coast Guard Base in Vancouver.

Guns

We will:

  • Make it harder for criminals to get, and use, handguns and assault weapons:
  • Repeal laws that allow restricted and prohibited weapons to be freely transported without a permit
  • Put decisions about weapons-making into the hands of police, not politicians
  • Allocate $100 million each year to provinces and territories for guns-and-gangs police task forces
  • Require enhanced background checks and valid licenses for some gun purchases; enhance gun detection capability at borders.
  • We will NOT re-implement national long-gun registry

New Democrat

2019 Platform

Gun Control

  • Too many lives have been lost in Canadian cities to rising gun crime. We will work to keep assault weapons and illegal handguns off our streets, and to tackle gun smuggling and organized crime

Gangs

  • To help protect our communities against gangs, New Democrats will make sure that communities have access to funding for anti-gang projects that help deter at-risk youth from joining gangs.
  • We’ll address radicalization by focusing on preventing youth from falling prey to violent extremism, including through support for community-led initiatives.

Police

It’s important that police practices respect the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and foster trust between law enforcement and Canadians. Carding, or “street checks”, do not respect Charter rights and erode trust between the police and communities

We will:

  • Ban carding / racial profiling by police
  • Create national task force to end over-representation of indigenous people and Black Canadians in prison population
  • Develop culturally-appropriate bail programs
  • Reduce requirements for mandatory sentencing

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

The Conservative Party supports reorienting the approach to criminal justice and the policing system to give the highest priority to the protection of society through the prevention of crime. Additionally, we support emphasizing the needs and rights of victims. We support our Canadian justice system as defined by our Charter and Constitution and does not support a parallel justice system which would contravene our existing rights and freedoms.

  • Supports right to own guns, with controls.
  • Proposes adoption of a national strategy to fight organized crime.
  • Proposes trial of violent offenders at age of 14.
  • Proposes strengthened measures for fighting child pornography and internet predators.
  • Supports return of Coast Guard to Ministry of Transportation; creation or upgrading of facilities to respond to marine safety matters

Green

Vision Green, 2019

Gun Control

We believe a National Gun Registry can be implemented as a compromise to accommodate the concerns of legal gun users while ensuring that law enforcement agencies have the tools they needed.

  • We need to work with each of the U.S. border states to press for action against gun smugglers.
  • Introduce balanced and fair measures to ban handguns and semi-automatic firearms.
  • Ensure that law-abiding citizens pursuing legal activities in hunting with long guns are free from unreasonable fees and the threat of criminalization.

RCMP

The Green Party supports a professional Royal Canadian Mounted Police force that not only has the highest conduct standards, but also commands the respect of all Canadians.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Pass legislation that establishes an independent body to investigate complaints regarding the conduct of RCMP officers report its findings publicly;
  • Provide more funding to the RCMP, specifically to give more training to new recruits;
  • Ensure RCMP in the line of duty are provided with the best technology in protective equipment and with adequate back-up in dangerous encounters with violent offenders;
  • Create a Board of Management to monitor and advise with respect to the RCMP’s organizational, administrative, and financial accountability.
  • Work in cooperation with the provinces and territories to re-focus the RCMP as a truly national police force re-focused upon the enforcement of federal laws;
  • Ensure the RCMP has the freedom and independence to conduct investigations into government officials, bureaucrats, and corporate executives, without interference from politicians.

Emergency Preparedness

Green Party MPs will:

  • Work to increase funding through Public Safety Canada and the Joint Emergency Preparedness Program (JEPP) for projects that implement municipal, territorial, and provincial emergency preparedness plans
  • Simplify the application process and expand the eligibility criteria for funding through the JEPP;
  • Increase funding for emergency preparedness training programs for emergency responders;
  • Fast-track seismic upgrading of public buildings such as hospitals, schools, and fire halls.
  • Create a tax-incentive for building owners – residential, commercial or industrial - to retrofit their buildings to greater seismic resilience.

Christian Heritage

2019 Platform

Justice is more than crime and punishment, although that remains an important part of true justice. It includes equal protection of all Canadians under our laws.

True justice does not allow partiality or special protections for any individual or group of people.

Our justice platform focuses on restitution for property crimes and public safety from violent crime.

Peoples' Party

2019 Platform

Gun Control

The legal use of rearms has always been part of Canadian tradition and culture. Today, there are over 2 million hunters, ranchers, trappers, farmers, target shooters, recreational shooters and collectors who legally possess rearms in our country.

However, despite this group being exceptionally law abiding and the most highly vetted segment in the Canadian population, the existing rearms legislation unfairly targets them, does not respect their property rights, and is highly arbitrary.

The Act continues to classify rearms into different categories for reasons which frequently have nothing to do with their function.

Under the licensing system of the Act, the ownership of rearms has become a privilege that can be revoked or altered at any moment. Legal gun owners can lose their property and even have their life ruined by being criminally charged through their inaction (by not keeping their paperwork up to date) or due to the moving goalposts of Canadian rearms law.

Our Plan

A People’s Party government will:

  • Replace the Firearms Act and supporting legislation with new legislation that will prioritize effective measures to improve public safety and fight crime in Canada.
  • Replace the costly and burdensome licensing system with an efficient lifetime certification system including mandatory vetting, safety training and testing.
  • To avoid criminalizing legal gun owners and guarantee their property rights.
  • Require that all firearms categories be based on function, not on looks or arbitrary political whims, and remove ineffective restrictions which unfairly target sport shooters, but have no deterrent effect on criminals.
  • Mandate that all future changes to rearms regulation be completed through Parliament only. This means that neither the RCMP nor cabinet will be able to move the legal goalposts for legal rearms owners without the approval of Parliament.

Issue

Government relations with Civil Society: charities, volunteers & public interest groups

Subsidiarity is among the most constant and characteristic directives of the Church's social doctrine and has been present since the first great social encyclical. It is impossible to promote the dignity of the person without showing concern for the family, groups, associations, local territorial realities; in short, for that aggregate of economic, social, cultural, sports-oriented, recreational, professional and political expressions to which people spontaneously give life and which make it possible for them to achieve effective social growth.

This is the realm of civil society… This network of relationships strengthens the social fabric and constitutes the basis of a true community of persons, making possible the recognition of higher forms of social activity.

The political community is established to be of service to civil society, from which it originates… This vision is challenged by political ideologies of an individualistic nature and those of a totalitarian character, which tend to absorb civil society into the sphere of the State.

The Church's commitment on behalf of social pluralism aims at bringing about a more fitting attainment of the common good and democracy itself, according to the principles of solidarity, subsidiarity and justice.

The political community and civil society, although mutually connected and interdependent, are not equal in the hierarchy of ends. The political community is essentially at the service of civil society and, in the final analysis, the persons and groups of which civil society is composed. Civil society, therefore, cannot be considered an extension or a changing component of the political community; rather, it has priority because it is in civil society itself that the political community finds its justification.

The State must provide an adequate legal framework for social subjects to engage freely in their different activities and it must be ready to intervene, when necessary and with respect for the principle of subsidiarity, so that the interplay between free associations and democratic life may be directed to the common good.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 185, 417, 418

Liberal

Platform 2015

  • We will allow charities to do their work on behalf of Canadians free from political harassment, and will modernize the rules governing the charitable and not-for-profit sectors.

This will include clarifying the [tax] rules governing “political activity,” with an understanding that charities make an important contribution to public debate and public policy. A new legislative framework to strengthen the sector will emerge from this process

New Democrat

  • No known published position.

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

The Conservative Party:

  • Believes that a responsible government must be fiscally prudent and should be limited to those responsibilities which cannot be discharged reasonably by the individual or others; and should provide services to Canadians that cannot be provided more efficiently and effectively by individuals or by the private sector.
  • We support measures, including those implemented through the tax system, which encourage charitable giving by individuals and corporations to the arts and cultural community.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) is a new and innovative accounting method that embraces a more systematic and comprehensive definition of well-being. Literacy, health and fitness, housework, family time, public infrastructure, cultural institutions, community volunteerism,… are all measured by the GPI.

Vibrant communities are places where… volunteering for the public good is common, leading to feelings of affiliation, belonging, and empowerment. Social networks are a key ingredient for community resilience.

While it is true that an unacceptably large number of Canadian families live in poverty, many more are suffering from ‘time poverty...’ Longer working hours rob community members of time for volunteer activities.,,, Statistics Canada also reports a steady decline in volunteer hours donated by Canadians.

Budgets for CRA audits of charities devoted to environmental protection and human rights have been vastly increased.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Promote revising and updating the laws relating to charitable NGOs, so that NGOs can participate in advocacy and be able to retain their charitable status and their ability to accept tax deductible donations

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Government’s relation with the Church and politics

The Church’s view:

Although the Church and the political community both manifest themselves in visible organizational structures, they are by nature different because of their configuration and because of the ends they pursue.

The Church is organized in ways that are suitable to meet the spiritual needs of the faithful, while the different political communities give rise to relationships and institutions that are at the service of everything that is part of the temporal common good.

The mutual autonomy of the Church and the political community does not entail a separation that excludes cooperation. Both of them, although by different titles, serve the personal and social vocation of the same human beings…

The Church respects the legitimate autonomy of the democratic order and is not entitled to express preferences for this or that institutional or constitutional solution, nor does it belong to her to enter into questions of the merit of political programmes, except as concerns their religious or moral implications.

…Precisely because her mission embraces all of human reality, the Church, sensing that she is truly and intimately linked with mankind and its history claims the freedom to express her moral judgment on this reality, whenever it may be required to defend the fundamental rights of the person or for the salvation of souls.

The Church therefore seeks:

  • freedom of expression, teaching and evangelization; freedom of public worship;
  • freedom of organization and of her own internal government;
  • freedom of selecting, educating, naming and transferring her ministers;
  • freedom for constructing religious buildings;
  • freedom to acquire and possess sufficient goods for her activity; and
  • freedom to form associations not only for religious purposes but also for educational, cultural, health care and charitable purposes.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 424, 425

Liberal

  • PM Trudeau used his party’s vetting process to bar pro-life party members from standing for Parliament (National Post, 7 May 2014)
  • The Governing Liberal party has taken action to require health professionals to make referrals for SAD and abortion, without regard to conscientious objection.

Liberal party barred organizations working to ban abortion from access to funds for summer hires; later changed program to require attestation that applicant’s wont’ work to infringe upon any Canadian’s legal rights. "It still achieves the same aim of ensuring that groups that are primarily against human rights, like anti-choice groups, are not going to be eligible for funding still, and it appears to satisfy the concerns of religious groups and churches," said Joyce Arthur, executive director of the Abortion Rights Coalition of Canada. (CBC News, 6 December 2018)

New Democrat

  • No known published position.

 

Conservative

  • No known published position.

Green

  • No known published position.

 

Christian Heritage

  • No known explicit published position.

2019 platform states that:

Canada’s heritage is common to all western countries where the laws are founded on biblical values. The fruits of this heritage are unparalleled freedoms and equal standing before the law for all citizens. One could take a map of the world, highlight those countries with the greatest historic freedoms and equality of opportunity and see the benefits, which have come to their citizens from our shared Christian heritage.

  • As secularism has taken root in our society we have seen increasing limitations on our historic freedoms and equalities.
  • Over past decades, we have seen a greater number of laws that provide extra protections to one group, leaving all Canadians who are not part of that group with ‘lesser protection.’
  • We have seen the rise of Human Rights Commissions, which have become censors of our thoughts, motives, beliefs and words.
  • We have seen laws passed based on exceptional circumstances rather than on normal circumstances…
  • It is to address these inequities, and other governmental abuses of power, that the Christian Heritage Party provides Canadians with these Better Solutions.

We invite you to… read our weekly Communiqué, to get the pulse of average, everyday Canadians reclaiming our God-given rights and freedoms by reclaiming our democratic government.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

 

Issue

Government’s relation to news and information media

The Church’s view:

Information is among the principal instruments of democratic participation. Participation without an understanding of the situation of the political community, the facts and the proposed solutions to problems is unthinkable.

It is necessary to guarantee a real pluralism in this delicate area of social life, ensuring that there are many forms and instruments of information and communications.

It is likewise necessary to facilitate conditions of equality in the possession and use of these instruments by means of appropriate laws. Among the obstacles that hinder the full exercise of the right to objectivity in information, special attention must be given to the phenomenon of the news media being controlled by just a few people or groups. This has dangerous effects for the entire democratic system when this phenomenon is accompanied by ever closer ties between governmental activity and the financial and information establishments.

The media must be used to build up and sustain the human community in its different sectors: economic, political, cultural, educational and religious. The information provided by the media is at the service of the common good. Society has a right to information based on truth, freedom, justice and solidarity.

The essential question is whether the current information system is contributing to the betterment of the human person; that is, does it make people more spiritually mature, more aware of the dignity of their humanity, more responsible or more open to others, in particular to the neediest and the weakest.

A further aspect of great importance is the requisite that new technologies respect legitimate cultural differences.

In the world of the media the intrinsic difficulties of communications are often exacerbated by ideology, the desire for profit and political control, rivalry and conflicts between groups, and other social evils. Moral values and principles apply also to the media….

It is necessary that citizens participate in the decision-making process concerning media policies. This participation, which is to be public, has to be genuinely representative and not skewed in favour of special interest groups when the media are a money-making venture.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 414 - 416

Liberal

2015 Platform

News

We will:

  • make new investments to support CBC/Radio-Canada, a vital national institution that brings Canadians together, promotes and defends our two official languages, and supports our shared culture.
  • review the process by which members are appointed to the CBC/Radio-Canada Board of Directors, to ensure merit-based and independent appointments.

Internet

  • Will work to make high-speed internet accessible throughout Canada.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

Most Canadians now get their news from Facebook, and Netflix is the largest broadcaster in the country – but these web giants don’t pay the same taxes or contribute to funding Canadian content in the same television, and media is up against a tidal wave of well-funded American content.

That’s why  we will:

  • Step up to make sure digital media companies play by the same rules as Canadian broadcasters. That means paying taxes, supporting Canadian content in both languages, and taking responsibility for what appears on their platform, just like other media outlets.
  • We’ll also increase funding for CBC and Radio-Canada beyond that provided by recent Conservative and Liberal governments. Public broadcasting has a remarkable legacy of connecting all points of our country – and it needs to have an even stronger future now more than ever to help make sure that Canadians have access to accurate, relevant information no matter where they live.

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

The Conservative Party believes in a stable Canadian presence in a varied and vibrant broadcasting system. The Canadian Broadcasting System (CBC) should offer a wide range of Canadian and international programming, while being respectful of Canadian content…

The CBC-SRC is an important part of the broadcasting system in Canada. It must be a true public service broadcaster, relevant to Canadians. We will focus the CBC-SRC services on its mandates as public broadcasting services.

We recognize the vital role played by the private broadcasters of Canada through their local and regional programming that reflects the language and multicultural realities of our country.

Private sector broadcasters and service-providers first and foremost are businesses and must be able to compete in an ever-increasing fragmented and global market. We recognize the need for both regulatory flexibility and predictability.

Broadcasting policy in Canada must be relevant in today’s communications environment and responsive to the demands of Canadians.

We believe the government should review and update the Broadcasting Act to ensure its relevance in today’s technological environment. We believe the government should establish clear, national policy directions and a framework that will maximize the freedom of choice and ensure that freedom of speech is respected.

The CRTC’s role in content regulation should be reduced to eliminate duplication where other legislation exists.

We believe that control and operations of the CBC could be best accomplished through establishing distinct budgets for the operations of the TV and radio broadcast functions.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

News Media

  • Canada has the most concentrated ownership of news media any country in the ‘free world.’
  • The national public broadcasters, the CBC and Radio Canada, are exceptions, but they are fearful of losing funding.
  • A free and diverse range of voices in our national and local media is an essential ingredient to a healthy democracy.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Call for an Independent Commission to undertake a comprehensive study of the concentration of media ownership in Canada and recommend how to diversify media ownership and strengthen the depth and breadth of news reporting, especially local news, in Canada.

Internet

The internet has become an essential tool in knowledge storage and the free flow of information between citizens. It is playing a critical role in democratizing communications and society as a whole.

There are corporations that want to control the content of information on the internet and alter the free flow of information by giving preferential treatment to those who pay extra for faster service.

The Green Party of Canada will:

  • Pass legislation granting the internet in Canada the status of Common Carrier – prohibiting Internet Service Providers (ISPs) from discriminating due to content while freeing them from liability for content transmitted through their systems;
  • Support Canada’s Advanced Research and Innovation Network (CANARIE);
  • Increase infrastructure spending to accommodate increased bandwidth use and to improve access to rural and remote Canadians (see Section 1.14 Infrastructure and Communities);
  • Improve support for small ISPs to improve competition and diversity choice for consumers;
  • Ensure network neutrality by supporting the principles of fair use, consumer information privacy, communications market competition, and rationalization of the statutory damages provision

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Relations with subsidiary governments: provinces, municipalities, territories, & Aboriginals

The Church’s view:

The principle of subsidiarity (of helping) protects people from abuses by higher-level social authority and calls on these same authorities to help individuals and intermediate groups to fulfil their duties. This principle is imperative because every person, family and intermediate group has something original to offer to the community.

Experience shows that the denial of subsidiarity, or its limitation in the name of an alleged democratization or equality of all members of society, limits and sometimes even destroys the spirit of freedom and initiative.

The principle of subsidiarity is opposed to various forms of centralization, bureaucratization, and welfare assistance, and to the unjustified and excessive presence of the State in public mechanisms…

[Relations between higher- and lower-order social elements have been emphasized by the Church from the beginning of its social statements.] Just as it is gravely wrong to take from individuals what they can accomplish by their own initiative and industry and give it to the community, so also it is an injustice and at the same time a grave evil and disturbance of right order to assign to a greater and higher association what lesser and subordinate organizations can do.

For every social activity ought of its very nature to furnish help to the members of the body social, and never destroy and absorb them.

On the basis of this principle, all societies of a superior order must adopt attitudes of help (“subsidium”) — therefore of support, promotion, development — with respect to lowerorder societies. In this way, intermediate social entities can properly perform the functions that fall to them without being required to hand them over unjustly to other social entities of a higher level, by which they would end up being absorbed and substituted, in the end seeing themselves denied their dignity and essential place.

Subsidiarity, understood in the positive sense as economic, institutional or juridical assistance offered to lesser social entities, entails a corresponding series of negative implications that require the State to refrain from anything that would de facto restrict the existential space of the smaller essential cells of society. Their initiative, freedom and responsibility must not be supplanted.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 186, 187

Liberal

2015 Platform

  • Calls in many instances of cooperation with provincial, territorial, aboriginal, and municipal governments in developing policy.

We will renew the relationship between Canada and Indigenous Peoples. It is time for Canada to have a renewed, nation-to-nation relationship with Indigenous Peoples, based on recognition, rights, respect, co-operation, and partnership. This is both the right thing to do and a sure path to economic growth.

  • We will undertake, in full partnership and consultation with First Nations, Inuit, and the Métis Nation, a full review of laws, policies, and operational practices. This will ensure that on project reviews and assessments, the Crown is fully executing its consultation, accommodation, and consent obligations, in accordance with its constitutional and international human rights obligations, including Aboriginal and Treaty rights and the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
  • We recognize the relationship between Indigenous Peoples and the land, and will respect legal traditions and perspectives on environmental stewardship.
  • Promise to restore long-form mandatory census, to assist all levels of government in planning.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

  • Calls in many instances of cooperation with provincial, territorial, aboriginal, and municipal governments in developing policy.

We believe the federal government should not be able to pick and choose which Indigenous rights they will uphold and which ones they will ignore. A new framework for reconciliation must be grounded in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which sets out minimum standards for the survival, dignity, and well-being of Indigenous peoples.

  • In partnership with Indigenous peoples, a New Democrat government will fully implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s 94 Calls to Action.

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

The Conservative Party:

  • Is committed to constitutional federal principles, and notion of strong provinces in Canada. Gov’t should work cooperatively with provinces to improve lives of Canadians while respecting constitutional divisions of power and responsibility.
  • Believes Quebec’s position within the federation should be consolidated, e.g., by signing of Constitution Act of 1982
  • Supports cooperation with Quebec, to provide a single, simplified tax return.
  • Sense of alienation in Western Canada should be alleviated.
  • Supports use of fair equalization and territorial financing formulas, to ensure that comparable levels of service are available at comparable levels of taxation.
  • Fed Gov’t should lead efforts to reduce / eliminate inter-provincial trade barriers
  • Supports interprovincial harmonization of professional and trades certification, to encourage labor mobility

The Conservative Party believes the following principles should govern the administration of existing federal Aboriginal programs:

  • the need for a legislated framework for federal aboriginal expenditures;
  • self government – legal and democratic authority;
  • transparency;
  • respecting the Canadian constitutional framework;
  • a framework for the settlement of comprehensive claims and self-government agreements;
  • the resolution of existing specific claims and lawsuits against the federal Crown; and
  • economic sustainability.
  • We support provisions for property ownership and women’s equality on reserves.

These principles should also govern future legislative reform to the Indian Act and related legislation. They should also form the basis for government decision making in the resolution of rights disputes – whether based upon existing treaties, court decisions or section 35 of the Constitution Act.

Green

2019 Platform

Provinces & Territories

The Green Party proposes to make Canada a true functioning Confederation in which the provinces and territories are more empowered and financed to meet the needs of their communities.

We recognize that access to high-speed internet connections is now a critical aspect of infrastructure and work to expand access to address the ‘digital divide’

Green Party MPs will:

  • Rebalance the funding formula to ensure fairness across regions and provinces;

Municipalities

The Green Party believes we must fundamentally re-examine the place of the municipal order of government within Confederation, whether by opening the Constitution to give greater recognition and powers to municipal governments, etc.

The Green Party will:

  • create a new pool of municipal infrastructure funding by changing tax rules to create a Municipal Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) bond.
  • Increase the Gas Tax Transfer to municipalities to five cents/litre to be used in funding sustainable transportation initiatives.
  • Advocate creation of six Municipal Superfunds of $500 million / fund / year (average of $100 for every citizen per year) to replace the less specific Canada Strategic Infrastructure Fund (CSIF): one each for brownfield remediation; water & waste treatment facilities; Sports, Cultural, and Recreational Facilities (SCRF); promotion of mass transit; improvement of cycling and pedestrian forms of travel; and community housing options.

First Nations

The Green Party of Canada therefore recognizes that Quebecers and First Nations people form a number of ‘nations’ within a united Canada.

Green Party MPs will:

  • speedily move to implement the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples;
  • seek an end to policies of assimilation;
  • provide strong support for health and education on and off reserve.
  • honour Canada’s fiduciary responsibility, treaty rights, and other rights of Aboriginal peoples, including their inherent rights of self-government;
  • repudiate the Doctrine of Discovery;
  • in partnership with Aboriginal Peoples, work towards the creation of an Aboriginal Lands and Treaties Tribunal Act to establish an independent body to decide on specific claims
  • repeal the Indian Act, ideally in less than 10 years
  • ensure that all existing federal policies on self-government are achieving the goals of Aboriginal peoples;
  • fully implement the recommendations of the 1996 Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, thereby embarking on true nation-to-nation negotiations on a full range of outstanding legal issues and land claims;
  • ensure that all parties Aboriginal rights to fish and hunt
  • support the development of Aboriginal education curricula that are language and culture specific;
  • incorporate traditional practices in the delivery of health care, education, and other services
  • review treatment of Aboriginals in the Canadian justice system and to investigate and address the disappearance of Aboriginal women;
  • Ensure, through consultation with indigenous organizations representing the concerns of Aboriginal women, that the rights of Inuit, Métis, and First Nations women are protected.

Quebec

The Green Party of Canada therefore recognizes that Quebecers and First Nations people form a number of ‘nations’ within a united Canada.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Ensure Quebec’s unique place within Canada is recognized and affirmed in all agreements between various levels of government;
  • Respect Quebec’s right to opt out of social programs and be fully compensated by the federal government if it provides a reasonably similar program;
  • Promote a form of federal-provincial tax-shifting that would gradually reduce the fiscal imbalance;
  • Support Quebec’s official representation at UNESCO and ensure that if Quebec and the federal representative do not agree upon a matter then Canada would abstain;
  • Rebalance the funding formula to ensure fairness across regions and provinces;
  • Recognize the legitimate right of the people of Quebec to freely and democratically determine its full and undiminished sovereignty through a clear majority vote.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

2019 Platform

Provincial Equalization

  • When it was started in 1957, the equalization program had a noble intention: to ensure that all Canadians have access to a similar level of services from their provincial government, regardless of whether they live in richer or poorer provinces. Equalization was seen as a way to unite the country.
  • Unfortunately, that is not how it turned out. The program is unfair and inefficient, both for citizens of richer provinces that do not receive equalization payments and for citizens of provinces that have been on the receiving end for decades because it keeps these provinces in a state of dependency and underdevelopment.
  • Equalization payments encourage recipient provinces to maintain large public sectors, keep taxes high, and intervene more in their economies. It’s a poverty trap.
  • The 1982 Constitution Act includes a vaguely worded commitment to “the principle” of equalization, the goal being to ensure that provinces “have sufficient revenues to provide reasonably comparable levels of public services at reasonably comparable levels of taxation.”
  • In 2019-20, the equalization program will transfer nearly $20 billion. Quebec will receive $13 billion, Manitoba $2.3 billion, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia $2 billion each, and Prince Edward Island $419 million. Under the current formula, the total amount of equalization payments increases steadily, in accordance with nominal GDP, even when there is a reduction in wealth disparities among the provinces.

Our Plan

  • Provinces should not be receiving equalization payments for decades, just like individuals should not be receiving welfare cheques all their lives. It’s time to stop rewarding provincial governments for not adopting better economic policies.
  • Reduce the total amount of equalization payments to provinces, and make sure that only the provinces with the greatest needs benefit from it.
  • Establish a parliamentary committee to review and make recommendations on a new formula that will avoid the welfare trap and provide poorer provinces with the right incentives to adopt pro-growth economic policies and reduce their dependence on federal money.
  • Ensure that the new formula respects our Constitution, makes provincial governments more responsible for their policy decisions, and is fair for citizens of all provinces.

Internal Trade Restrictions

Canadians still cannot buy, sell, or work freely within their own country. Goods such as alcohol and agricultural products cannot be sold freely across provincial borders because of government monopolies or regulations. Nurses, accountants, or engineers have problems finding work in another province because their skills are not automatically recognized. Safety rules vary from one province to another.

In some cases, it is easier for a Canadian company to sell its product in another country than in another province or territory.

Section 121 of the Constitution states that goods must be “admitted free into each of the other provinces.” However, in the 2018 landmark Comeau case, the Supreme Court ruled that measures which have the effect of limiting trade are unconstitutional only if it can be demonstrated that this is their “primary purpose.” This level of proof would be extremely difficult to establish in most cases.

A 2016 study published in the Canadian Journal of Economics concluded that interprovincial trade barriers cost Canadians roughly $100 billion in lost economic opportunities annually. This is equivalent to a staggering $7,500 per household every year.

A People’s Party government will:

  • Reassert the authority and leadership of the federal government on internal trade.
  • Under section 91(2) of the Constitution, force provinces to apply the principle of mutual recognition where applicable.
  • Appoint a Minister of Internal Trade whose sole responsibility will be to conduct studies, raise public awareness, counteract the influence of special interests that benefit from interprovincial barriers, and pressure on provincial governments to get rid of them.

Issue

Privacy; Use of Government Data

Political authority must guarantee an ordered and upright community life without usurping the free activity of individuals and groups, but disciplining and orienting this freedom, by respecting and defending the independence of the individual and social subjects, for the attainment of the common good.

Political authority is an instrument of coordination and direction by means of which the many individuals and intermediate bodies must move towards an order in which relationships, institutions and procedures are put at the service of integral human, growth. Political authority, in fact, “whether in the community as such or in institutions representing the State, must always be exercised within the limits of morality and on behalf of the dynamically conceived common good, according to a juridical order enjoying legal status. When such is the case citizens are conscience-bound to obey”.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, § 394

Liberal

2015 Platform

  • Sharing of data collected by Statistics Canada helps private sector, government, not-for profit groups, and researchers make better decisions.
  • We will make Statistics Canada fully independent. We will work with Statistics Canada and other stakeholders to provide a broader range of information, including detailed labour market information, child development data, and statistics about our population.

Canadians have a right to access their personal information held by the government.

  • To make accessing this information faster, less complicated, and more affordable, we will create a simple, central, no-fee website for personal information requests.
  • We will back this up with a 30-day guarantee: should a request take longer than 30 days to fulfill, government must provide a written explanation for the delay to the applicant and the Privacy Commissioner.
  • We will work with the Privacy Commissioner to ensure that Canadians’ data is kept safe and secure while using new online access points to government services
  • We will require warrants for online surveillance of Canadians

New Democrat

2019 Platform

New Democrats will work to strengthen privacy protections for Canadians by boosting the power of the Privacy Commissioner to make and enforce orders.

Conservative

2019 Policy Declaration

The Conservative Party believes that:

  • the purpose of Canada as a nation state and its government, guided by reflective and prudent leadership, is to create a climate wherein individual initiative is rewarded, excellence is pursued, security and privacy of the individual is provided and prosperity is guaranteed by a free competitive market economy
  • senior Parliamentary officers such as the Auditor General, Chief Electoral Officer, Comptroller General, Ethics Commissioner, Information Commissioner, and Privacy Commissioner should be appointed by Parliament and report to it
  • government should fight the cyber-stalking of children by allocating more resources for Internet monitoring, by increasing the penalty for cyber-stalkers, and by taking measures to raise awareness among all Canadians (particularly young Canadians) about the importance of protecting your privacy online.

Green

Vision Green 2019

All public data in the custody of government in which there are no privacy, security, or other legal concerns preventing the data from being shared, data will be reviewed by the Privacy Commissioner of Canada via the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Document Act (PIPEDA) and made publicly available:

  • With the highest level of granularity and detail possible which still maintains the privacy of individual citizens;
  • In a timely fashion so that the value of the data is preserved;
  • Accessible to the widest range of users for the widest range of purposes in a non-proprietary format;
  • Machine processable and structured to allow automated processing, without having to mechanically harvest the data before using it;
  • Non-discriminatory and available to everyone without having to register or self-identify as being interested in the data;
  • With a license that does not encumber the user, and ideally without a license at all.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Fiscal responsibility; stewardship of public funds

The Church’s view:

Tax revenues and public spending take on crucial economic importance for every civil and political community. The goal to be sought is public financing that is itself capable of becoming an instrument of development and solidarity. Just, efficient and effective public financing will have very positive effects on the economy, because it will encourage employment growth and sustain business and non-profit activities and help to increase the credibility of the State as the guarantor of systems of social insurance and protection that are designed above all to protect the weakest members of society.

Public spending is directed to the common good when certain fundamental principles are observed: the payment of taxes as part of the duty of solidarity; a reasonable and fair application of taxes; precision and integrity in administering and distributing public resources.

In the redistribution of resources, public spending must observe the principles of solidarity, equality and making use of talents. It must also pay greater attention to families, designating an adequate amount of resources for this purpose.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 355

Liberal

2015 Platform

  • We will deliberately run up to a $10 billion in deficits for two years to fund infrastructure and middle-class conditions
  • Return to balanced budget in 2019
  • Reduce the federal debt-to-GDP ratio to 27 percent
  • We will devote a fixed percentage of program funds to experimenting with new approaches to existing problems.
  • We will measure our results and encourage innovation to continuously improve the services government provides to Canadians.

We will use accurate data to make good decisions. We will stop funding initiatives that are no longer effective and invest program dollars in those that are of good value.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

Promise to rebalance revenue sources by:

  • Returning corporate tax rates to 2010 levels (18 percent), while maintaining small business tax rate at current level, to provide ‘several billion dollars in revenue annually.’
  • Attract investment through good regulation, strong public services, infrastructure, and access to education.
  • Increase top marginal tax rate two percent, to 35%, for those earning over $210k CAD.
  • Tax those holding more than $20M CAD in wealth to incur 1% wealth tax, to generate several billion dollars annually.
  • Raise investment profits subject to capital gains to 75%, as in 2000
  • Increase enforcement for tax evaders

Conservative

2018 Policy Declarations

  • Government should implement detailed processes to streamline government services and eliminate waste, unnecessary overlap, and duplication between levels of government and across the federal government
  • Support regular evaluation of all major government spending programs
  • Requirements for fiscal balance set in Budget 2007 should be restored.
  • Gov’t should enact balanced budget legislation, with overrides for declared national emergencies
  • Supports adoption of debt repayment plan through application of budget surpluses
  • Support stronger enforcement and penalties for fraud pertaining to use of tax dollars

Green

Vision Green Statement, 2019

The Green Party believes in living within our limits, ecologically and fiscally. We are committed to a balanced budget and to reducing the national debt. It won’t be easy. To pay down the debt, particularly the current large deficit increase, while supporting programs that meet immediate social, economic, and environmental needs, we must maintain a healthy and fair level of taxation and we must ensure that Canadians get good value for their tax dollars.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Ensure that we do not transfer the deficit from our financial statements to our bridges, waterworks, and other critical infrastructure needs. Pay attention to the ecological, social, and infrastructure deficit;
  • Set a disciplined schedule to gradually pay down the debt while maintaining public services and programs that meet immediate social and environmental needs, increasing debt reduction over time but starting with modest targets to permit investment in critical programs.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.