Issue

Foreign Affairs, International Relations & Sovereignty

The Church’s view:

The loss of centrality on the part of States [as a result of globalization] must coincide with a greater commitment on the part of the international community to exercise a strong guiding role… Because of the new bonds of interdependence among global operators, the traditional defensive measures of States appear to be destined to failure…

The centrality of the human person and the natural inclination of persons and peoples to establish relationships among themselves are the fundamental elements for building a true international community, the ordering of which must aim at guaranteeing the effective universal common good… [T]he unity of the human family is not yet becoming a reality. This is due to obstacles originating in materialistic and nationalistic ideologies that contradict the values of the person integrally considered in all his various dimensions, material and spiritual, individual and community. In particular, any theory or form whatsoever of racism and racial discrimination is morally unacceptable.

The coexistence among nations is based on the same values that should guide relations among human beings: truth, justice, active solidarity and freedom….

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 370, 433

Liberal

2018 Policy Resolutions:

  • Resolved to develop comprehensive, integrated Three-Oceans Policy, including environmental protection, economic and social development, R&D, sovereignty and security, and acquisition of oceanographic research vessels; develop full access to internet & telecommunications throughout the Arctic

2015 Platform

Canada has a proud tradition of international leadership, from helping to create the United Nations after the Second World War, to the campaign against South African apartheid, to the international treaty to ban landmines.

Our plan will restore Canada as a leader in the world. Not only to provide greater security and economic growth for Canadians, but because Canada can make a real and valuable contribution to a more peaceful and prosperous world.

  • We will recommit to supporting international peace operations with the United Nations, and will make our specialized capabilities – from mobile medical teams to engineering support to aircraft that can carry supplies and personnel – available on a case-by-case basis.
  • To help the UN respond more quickly to emerging and escalating conflicts, we will provide well-trained personnel that can be quickly deployed, including mission commanders, staff officers, and headquarters units.
  • We will prioritize assistance for civilian police training operations, particularly Francophone officers, who are in great demand.
  • We will lead an international effort to improve and expand the training of military and civilian personnel deployed on peace operations, and will insist that any peacekeepers involved in misconduct be held accountable by their own country and the United Nations.

Finally, to better help those affected by war and violent conflict, we will contribute more to the United Nations’ mediation, conflict-prevention, and post-conflict reconstruction efforts.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

We believe that Canadian interests are best served by a strong and principled foreign policy based on human rights, multilateralism and the best interests of global peace and security. We will stand up to Donald Trump and defend everyday people and Canadian values on the international stage.

Under a New Democrat government, Canada will be a force for peace. We will:

  • support nuclear disarmament,
  • recommit to peacekeeping, and
  • make sure that Canadian-made weapons are not fueling conflict and human rights abuses abroad.
  • New Democrats will deal with threats to our national security, including foreign interference and espionage, terrorism and cybercrime, by working with our international allies, enhancing real-time oversight of security services, and fully respecting the privacy and Charter rights of all Canadians

We will work for a two-state solution between Israel and Palestine that respects human rights and international law.

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

The Conservative Party supports a foreign policy that protects Canada’s sovereignty and independence, promotes our national interests (political, economic and strategic), contributes to collective security and defence, promotes democratic principles and human rights, and assists in international development.

We believe the government should recognize the importance of an ethical dimension in foreign policy and will advance the values broadly supported by Canadians.

We believe that Canada's international relations, trade and foreign aid policies should advance the country's economic interests while promoting human rights and individual freedom.

We believe the government should integrate our foreign policy with policies on trade and national defence.

We believe the government should take strong action to combat human trafficking and should take a lead in developing international agreements and protocols against human trafficking.

  • Parliament should be fully informed and consulted prior to any binding action on new international treaties. Provinces should be consulted if proposed treaty directly effects provincial authority or finances.
  • Government should recognize the importance of an ethical dimension in foreign policy and advance the values broadly supported by Canadians.
  • We believe that Canada's international relations, trade and foreign aid policies should advance the country's economic interests while promoting human rights and individual freedom.
  • We believe the government should integrate our foreign policy with policies on trade and national defence.
  • Gov’t should work with Territorial governments to assert and maintain Canadian Sovereignty in the Arctic through integrated resource management
  • Calls for global emissions reduction regime with binding targets for all global emitters, including China and the US
  • Promotes international cooperation in marine research for peaceful purposes
  • Canada should exert sovereign rights in Internal Waters, Territorial Sea and in the Exclusive Economic Zone, and accept responsibility for marine research and regulation of marine traffic.
  • Israel

Advocates moving Canadian Embassy to Jerusalem and recognizing Jerusalem as capital of Israel.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

The Green Party, being international, is able to work with its corresponding parties in other countries in order to make its actions more effective – in pressing the nuclear superpowers to meet their obligations for disarmament, to reduce and eliminate the nuclear threat; to shift military budgets to peacekeeping and peacebuilding; to ensure the education, health protection, and economic autonomy of women and girls around the world; and to address poverty and overpopulation.

The Green Party sees international law and its institutions as the roots of international justice and stability. We must never by-pass the requirement for a United Nations resolution before engaging militarily.

UN Reform

Virtually all nations belong to the United Nations, which has sent 63 peacekeeping missions to conflict zones, and peacefully resolved at least 175 international disputes.

The Green Party supports the role of the UN in diplomatic intervention and international peacekeeping.

Green MPs will

  • Increase our commitment of resources, especially funds for peacekeeping and adequate training and provisioning of troops, to the United Nations;
  • Promote the democratic reform of the UN Security Council to include more balance in north-south representation
  • eliminate bias in the treatment of, for example, Israel by the General Assembly, and end the use of vetoes;
  • Launch a global dialogue on the notion of a bicameral UN, with one house being the General Assembly of nation-state representatives, and a Peoples’ Assembly, as in the European Parliament, with direct election on behalf of the worlds’ peoples.

Africa

We must work to end the international plundering of Africa’s natural resources and turn our attention to supporting the emergence of strong African nations with full respect for their sovereignty. Green MPs will support the African Union’s leadership role in establishing cooperative peace and security treaties between countries

Israel & Palestine

We support a two-state solution to the Israel-Palestine conflict that addresses the security, economic, and religious concerns of the both sides, and accept as inviolable the right of the State of Israel to exist, in the absence of fear and conflict;

Iran

External interference and repeated rejection of offers of dialogue have contributed greatly to a continued threat against real democracy and human rights in Iran.

Equally, corruption and false rhetoric employed by some Iranian leaders widens the divide between the government and the Iranian people. The Green Party of Canada condemns the development of, and possession of, nuclear weapons by any nation.

USA

No matter who is in the White House, a close relationship is dictated with the United States, through geography, history, and trade. Green Party MPs will:

  • Build and strengthen relations with all levels of U.S. government − municipal, state, and federal − and with U.S. civil society;
  • Expand networking opportunities for corporate Canada with an emphasis on small business to promote Canadian exports;
  • Expand partnerships among cultural institutions, scientific research organizations, universities, and municipalities;
  • Expand and promote mutual tourism opportunities, especially for young people

Latin and South America

Green Party MPs will build neutral, independent partnerships with Latin and South American countries by actively engaging those countries in creating partnerships in development aid and economic investment that promote our mutual ideals of Fair Trade and promotion of strong civil society, human rights, and respect for indigenous peoples and the environment.

We will denounce all outside interference that promotes internal violence and/or the violent overthrow of democratically elected governments in the regions.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

The exclusive priority of the government of Canada on the international scene should be to manage our relations with other countries in order to protect and further the interests of Canadians.

  • There is a growing trend to dilute national sovereignty, and to favour increased international policy coordination as well as the redistribution of wealth from rich to poor countries under the supervision of the United Nations.
  • Over the past several years, Canada has signed many UN treaties, accords and compacts on issues ranging from global warming to migration and sustainable development, that tie us to this corrosive globalist agenda.
  • The government spends billions of dollars every year to help countries in Africa and Asia build roads, educate children, and reduce their CO2 emissions. It plans to spend $1.4 billion every year to offer abortion and reproductive health services to women in developing countries.

Facts

  • The United Nations is a dysfunctional organisation where non-democratic countries, because of their large numbers, have the most influence. This leads to ridiculous situations. For example, several of the member states on the UN Human Rights Council are among the worst human rights offenders in the world. As one country among almost 200, Canada has no interest in seeing the UN grow into a more powerful, quasi-world government.
  • There is no persuasive moral or economic efficiency argument for development aid. Countries that remain poor are those where governments are still crushing private initiative. Until they liberalize their economy and free their citizens, no amount of development aid will solve their problems. On the contrary, it creates a cycle of dependency and often helps these authoritarian governments stay in power.

Our plan

Canada needs a common-sense foreign policy focused on the security and prosperity of Canadians, not an ideological approach that compromises our interests.

The People’s Party will:

  • Continue to work closely with our allies to maintain a peaceful international order, but will not get involved in foreign conflicts unless we have a compelling strategic interest in doing so.
  • Prioritize relations with our main trading and defence partner, and work whoever occupies the White House, to reinforce our friendship and cooperation.
  • Withdraw from all UN commitments, including the Global Compact on Migrations and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, that threaten our sovereignty, and reduce our presence in UN institutions to a minimum.
  • Liberalize trade with as many countries as possible, while ensuring our security and protecting our economy from the threat of potentially hostile foreign investors.

Save billions of dollars by phasing out development aid, and focus Canadian international assistance exclusively on emergency humanitarian action in cases such as health crises, major conflicts and natural disasters.

Issue

Global care for the environment

The Church’s view:

Responsibility for the environment, the common heritage of mankind, extends not only to present needs but also to those of the future... we cannot refuse to interest ourselves in those who will come after us, to enlarge the human family”

Responsibility for the environment should also find adequate expression on a juridical level. It is important that the international community draw up uniform rules that will allow States to exercise more effective control over the various activities that have negative effects on the environment and to protect ecosystems by preventing the risk of accidents… They must be accompanied by a growing sense of responsibility as well as an effective change of mentality and lifestyle.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 467, 468

Liberal

2015 Platform

We will provide national leadership and join with the provinces and territories to take action on climate change, put a price on carbon, and reduce carbon pollution.

  • Participate in Paris Climate Conference
  • Fulfill G20 commitments and phase out subsidies for oil industry

New Democrat

2019 Platform:

A New Democrat government is doing our fair share to help achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals for 2030,

Conservative

  • No known published position.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

We believe Canada can and must increase its commitment to the UN and that there must be significant UN reform to make the organization more effective… Green Party MPs will:

  • Move to make the UN Environment Program (UNEP) a funded organization of the UN system from its current status where donations from member nations are voluntary.
  • Expand the UNEP mandate to a supervisory one over all multilateral environmental treaties, much as the WTO supervises all trade agreements within the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

2019 Platform

The exclusive priority of the government of Canada on the international scene should be to manage our relations with other countries in order to protect and further the interests of Canadians.

Over the past several years, Canada has signed many UN treaties, accords and compacts on issues ranging from global warming to migration and sustainable development, that tie us to this corrosive globalist agenda.

Issue

Global Finance

The Church’s view:

The loss of centrality on the part of States [as a result of increasing globalization] must coincide with a greater commitment on the part of the international community to exercise a strong guiding role… The governments of individual countries find their actions in the economic and social spheres ever more strongly conditioned by the expectations of international capital markets and by the ever more pressing requests for credibility coming from the financial world. Because of the new bonds of interdependence among global operators, the traditional defensive measures of States appear to be destined to failure and, in the presence of new areas of competition, the very notion of a national market recedes into the background.

If the creation of what is called the “global capital market” has brought benefits… on the other hand it has also increased the risk of financial crises. The financial sector, which has seen the volume of financial transactions far surpass that of real transactions, runs the risk of developing according to a mentality that has only itself as a point of reference, without being connected to the real foundations of the economy.

The more the worldwide economic-financial system reaches high levels of organizational and functional complexity, all the more priority must be given to the task of regulating these processes, directing them towards the goal of attaining the common good of the human family.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 368-371

Liberal

June 29, 2019: News Release, Prime Minister’s Office

(https://pm.gc.ca/eng/news/2019/06/29/prime-minister-concludes-productive-g20-leaders-summit)

At the G20 Summit, Prime Minister Trudeau highlighted the importance of working together to grow economies that benefit everyone. He underscored the need to create new opportunities for the middle class in order to help people regain confidence in the future.

  • This year’s G20 Summit built on many of the themes of Canada’s 2018 G7 Presidency, including combatting climate change, promoting clean energy, growing the middle class, and advancing gender equality.
  • In advance of the Summit, the Prime Minister took part in a meeting with European partners to discuss a number of global issues, and agreed on the importance of G20 collaboration in addressing the world’s most pressing challenges.

During the Summit, the Prime Minister stressed the need for G20 countries to work together to defend the rules-based international order, build economies that work for more people, and protect our shared environment for future generations. He also promoted open trade and investment, and met with several world leaders to discuss the opportunities for businesses and working people created by the new CPTPP trade agreement.

New Democrat

  • No known published position.

 

Conservative

  • No known published position.

 

Green

Viision Green, 2019

We believe Canada can and must increase its commitment to the UN and that there must be significant UN reform to make the organization more effective… Green Party MPs will:

  • Re-organize other powerful multilateral institutions – the World Trade Organization (WTO), the IMF and the World Bank – placing these institutions under the authority of the UN General Assembly, and shift the direction of international trade away from “free trade” to “fair trade” focusing on the global protection of human rights, labour standards, cultural diversity, and ecosystems.

International Financial Transaction Tax

Globally, support is growing for an International Financial Transaction Tax (FTT). The proposal is strongly supported by France and has the backing of Germany, Belgium, and others, to prevent financial disruptions fueled by speculation, such as the global collapse of 2008.

The international FTT is a small tax that is placed on all ‘speculative’ financial transactions.  On March 23, 1999, the Canadian House of Commons passed Motion M-239 by a vote of 164 to 83: “That, in the opinion of the House, the government should enact a tax on financial transactions in concert with the international community.”.

Green MPs will

  • Make the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT) a priority in international relations;

Negotiate to bring a FTT within the GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) as a prerequisite for admission to the World Trade Organization.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

 

Issue

Disarmament

The Church’s view:

The Church's social teaching proposes the goal of “general, balanced and controlled disarmament”. The enormous increase in arms represents a grave threat to stability and peace. The principle of sufficiency, by virtue of which each State may possess only the means necessary for its legitimate defence, must be applied both by States that buy arms and by those that produce and furnish them. Any excessive stockpiling or indiscriminate trading in arms cannot be morally justified.

[The doctrine of] deterrence gives rise to strong moral reservations. The arms race does not ensure peace. Far from eliminating the causes of war, it risks aggravating them. Policies of nuclear deterrence, typical of the Cold War period, must be replaced with concrete measures of disarmament based on dialogue and multilateral negotiations.

Arms of mass destruction — whether biological, chemical or nuclear — represent a particularly serious threat. Those who possess them have an enormous responsibility before God and all of humanity.

The principle of the non-proliferation of nuclear arms, together with measures of nuclear disarmament and the prohibition of nuclear tests, are intimately interconnected objectives that must be met as soon as possible by means of effective controls at the international level.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 508, 509

Liberal

Globe & Mail, Oct 27, 2017:

  • Boycotted talks and declined to sign Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapon (signed by 122 countries)
  • “Any time you’re going to talk about moving forward on a nuclear-free world, you have to focus on the countries that already have nuclear weapons and therefore look at reducing that amount.”
  • Canada must focus “on concrete measures” for disarmament.

Canada chairs the UN committee for development of Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

Under an NDP government, Canada will be a force for peace. We will support nuclear disarmament, recommit to peacekeeping, and make sure Canadian-made weapons are not fueling conflict and human rights abuses abroad.

Conservative

  • No known published position.

 

Green

Vision Green, 2019

The Green Party is a truly global party. Together we work to press the nuclear superpowers to meet their obligations for disarmament, to reduce and eliminate the nuclear threat. We work to shift military budgets to peacekeeping and peacebuilding.

Canada continues to press for sales of its CANDU nuclear technology around the world, without adequate safeguards. Canada has sold reactors to dictatorships, such as Argentina in the junta era. Canadian research-reactor waste in India allowed that nation to join the nuclear club.

Green MPs will:

  • support the Five-Point Plan of the United Nations Secretary General to reinforce the Non-Proliferation Treaty through the Nuclear Weapons Convention now supported by 122 countries.
  • Sign and Ratify the Treaty to Ban Nuclear Weapons;
  • End subsidies to Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) for promoting reactor sales abroad, and refuse to finance such ‘sales’ with tax dollars;
  • Strengthen the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency to prevent nuclear reactor fuels from finding their way into nuclear weapons;
  • Press NATO allies to get out of the nuclear weapons business; and
  • Move rapidly to multi-lateral negotiations to eliminate all nuclear stockpiles, prevent rebuilding of nuclear arsenals, and seek legally binding guarantees by nuclear weapons states not to attack non-nuclear states, as well as enhanced verification techniques.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

 

Issue

Arms Sales

The Church’s view:

War is a “scourge” and is never an appropriate way to resolve problems that arise between nations.

Appropriate measures are needed to control the production, sale, importation and exportation of small arms and light weapons, armaments that facilitate many outbreaks of violence to occur. The sale and trafficking of such weapons constitute a serious threat to peace: these arms kill and are used for the most part in internal and regional conflicts; their ready availability increases both the risk of new conflicts and the intensity of those already underway.

The position of States that apply severe controls on the international transfer of heavy arms while they never, or only very rarely, restrict the sale and trafficking of small arms and light weapons is an unacceptable contradiction.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 497, 511

Liberal

2015 Platform

  • We will ensure that Canada becomes a party to the International Arms Trade Treaty

Globe & Mail, 17 Dec 2018

  • Continued sales of $15 billion arms, including tanks, with Saudi Arabia, during civil strife in Yemen
  • Sold billions of dollars in arms to other countries

New Democrat

2019 Platform

Canada should be a force for peace. We will support nuclear disarmament, recommit to peacekeeping, and make sure that Canadian-made weapons are not fueling conflict and human rights abuses abroad.

Conservative

  • No known published position.

 

Green

Vision Green, 2019

Green Party MPs will:

Fulfill Canada’s obligation under international agreements (United Nations Firearms Protocol and the Organization of American States Firearms Convention) to mark all imported firearms, as recommended by the Canadian Association of Police Boards and the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

National defense; veterans’ affairs

The Church’s view:

The requirements of legitimate defence justify the existence in States of armed forces, the activity of which should be at the service of peace. Those who defend the security and freedom of a country, in such a spirit, make an authentic contribution to peace.

Everyone who serves in the armed forces is concretely called to defend good, truth and justice in the world. Many are those who, in such circumstances, have sacrificed their lives for these values and in defence of innocent lives. Very significant in this regard is the increasing number of military personnel serving in multinational forces on humanitarian or peace-keeping missions promoted by the United Nations.

A war of aggression is intrinsically immoral. In the tragic case where such a war breaks out, leaders of the State that has been attacked have the right and the duty to organize a defence even using the force of arms. To be licit, the use of force must correspond to certain strict conditions: “the damage inflicted by the aggressor on the nation or community of nations must be lasting, grave and certain; all other means of putting an end to it must have been shown to be impractical or ineffective; there must be serious prospects of success; the use of arms must not produce evils and disorders graver than the evil to be eliminated.

If this responsibility justifies the possession of sufficient means to exercise this right to defence, States still have the obligation to do everything possible to ensure that the conditions of peace exist, not only within their own territory but throughout the world.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 500-502

Liberal

2015 Platform

We will review current programs and capabilities, and lay out a realistic plan to strengthen Canada’s Armed Forces.

We will develop the Canadian Armed Forces into an agile, responsive, and well-equipped military force that can effectively defend Canada and North America; provide support during natural disasters, humanitarian support missions, and peace operations; and offer international deterrence and combat capability.

  • We will continue to work with the United States to defend North America under NORAD, and contribute to regional security within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
  • We will ensure that equipment is acquired faster, and with vigorous Parliamentary oversight.
  • We will put a renewed focus on surveillance and control of Canadian territory and approaches, particularly our Arctic regions, and will increase the size of the Canadian Rangers.
  • We will assist in domestic security and natural disaster responses, both at home and abroad.
  • To help regional and local partners prevent the spread of terrorism and radicalization, we will vastly increase the scope of training assistance missions. To bolster these partnerships, we will support programs that admit and train partner country military students.
  • Instead of F-35 fighters, will look at lower-cost alternatives that better suit Canada’s needs. Will apply savings to build icebreakers, supply ships, arctic and offshore patrol ships, surface combatants, and other resources required by the Navy.

Veterans

  • We will increase benefits and support for injured veterans, including lifetime pension in some cases; invest $25 million per year for permanent impairment relief.
  • invest $80 million per year in new Veterans Education Benefit, to provide full support for the costs of up to four years of college, university, or technical education for Canadian Forces veterans after completion of service.
  • We will also expand the number of job opportunities available to veterans by ensuring provisions for their employment are included in the Community Benefits Agreements of federal infrastructure projects.
  • Invest $100 million per year in educational and counseling support for families of veterans
  • Increase veterans’ survivor benefit from 50 to 70%

New Democrat

2019 Platform

Decades of prior policies have left our military with outdated equipment, inadequate support, and an unclear strategic mandate.’ We will:

  • Ensure our troops have the equipment, training, and support they need
  • Ensure that national and international commitments are adequately funded, with priority for peacekeeping
  • Bring search & rescue response times to international standards
  • Ensure that shipbuilding procurement is kept on time and on budget, and ensure that work is spread across the country
  • Ensure fighter jet replacement program provides the best fighters at the best price
  • Oppose privatization of services on Canadian Forces bases
  • Ensure recruitment and retention reflect the diversity of Canada

Veterans

  • Make mental health care a priority for members and families
  • Ensure that ill and injured forces members are not unfairly pushed out of service

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

We believe that defense of Canada’s democratic freedom and territorial integrity is the highest obligation of the federal government. We:

  • Support preservations of Canada’s current obligations, regionally and internationally.
  • Support joining with allies, when in Canada’s best interests, to defend the rights and freedoms of peoples throughout the world.
  • Believe that the government should provide the best possible services and benefits for veterans and their families.

Veterans

  • Commit to keeping the memory of Canadian veterans’ achievements and sacrifices alive through the promotion of public awareness and memorials.
  • Support the Veterans’ Bill of Rights to ensure that all disputes involving veterans are treated quickly, fairly and with the presumption in favour of the rights of the veteran.
  • Support standard of delivery of services to veterans, including clear time commitments
  • Recognize the importance of supporting veterans' and their families in reintegrating into life after challenging periods of service, support making Canada an international leader in the diagnosis, treatment and research of any mental or physical stress caused by military service.
  • Support keeping National military treasures are retained in Canada as a part of our Canadian heritage and that the government purchase military artifacts of particular importance in private possession.
  • When deployed or on training, reservists should be treated as if they are regulars. On returning from deployment or training, reservists having jobs at any level of gov’t should be guaranteed a return to work.
  • Military procurement should be streamlined, and bureaucratic impediments removed.
  • Supports a Military Covenant of social care for veterans.
  • Personnel injured in the line of duty should be retained and retrained for service at the end of their current commitment.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

We need to seriously question the need for a significant increase in military spending. We question Canada’s need for stealth fighter jets with first strike capability.

The Green Party supports members of the Canadian military, including their right to be properly equipped while in service and properly cared for as veterans. We need to pursue a revised vision for Canadian defence policy with a focus on disaster response, search-and-rescue, and peacekeeping.

In particular, we need to move ahead in purchase of ice-breakers, fixed-wing search and rescue (SAR) aircraft, and Coast Guard vessels.

Green MPs will:

  • Pursue cost-cutting by reducing by 30% the $2.7 billion spent every year on DND consultants and contractors;
  • Ask 9,000 Reservists, over 9 000, to choose if they would be ready for part-time positions;

Veterans

The people of Canada have abdicated our responsibility to honour our half of the contract with military and RCMP personnel. Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC) is now run like a for-profit medical insurance corporation, with policy manuals specifically tailored to initially deny applications for programs and benefits based on a maze of confusing and contradictory eligibility requirements. VAC has unfairly subdivided veterans into several categories and bases eligibility on where they fall in a specific category.

  • Disability payments must not be tied to income.
  • The Lump Sum Payment in lieu of lifetime pension for injuries sustained on duty for Canada must be scrapped.
  • The Veterans Review and Appeal Board (VRAB) must be reformed to work more fairly, and to include a higher content of veterans.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

2019 Platform

Canada needs a common-sense foreign policy focused on the security and prosperity of Canadians, not an ideological approach that compromises our interests.

The People’s Party will:

  • Continue to work closely with our allies to maintain a peaceful international order, but will not get involved in foreign conflicts unless we have a compelling strategic interest in doing so.
  • Prioritize relations with our main trading and defence partner, and work whoever occupies the White House, to reinforce our friendship and cooperation.
  • Withdraw from all UN commitments, including the Global Compact on Migrations and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, that threaten our sovereignty, and reduce our presence in UN institutions to a minimum.

Save billions of dollars by phasing out development aid, and focus Canadian international assistance exclusively on emergency humanitarian action in cases such as health crises, major conflicts and natural disasters.

Issue

International peacekeeping / peacebuilding; collective security

The Church’s view:

States do not always possess adequate means to provide effectively for their own defence, from this derives the need and importance of international and regional organizations, which should be in a position to work together to resolve conflicts and promote peace, re-establishing relationships of mutual trust that make recourse to war unthinkable.

Sanctions, in the forms prescribed by the contemporary international order, seek to correct the behaviour of the government of a country that violates the rules of peaceful and ordered international coexistence or that practises serious forms of oppression with regard to its population. The purpose of these sanctions must be clearly defined and the measures adopted must from time to time be objectively evaluated by the competent bodies of the international community as to their effectiveness and their real impact on the civilian population. The true objective of such measures is open to the way to negotiation and dialogue. Sanctions must never be used as a means for the direct punishment of an entire population: it is not licit that entire populations, and above all their most vulnerable members, be made to suffer because of such sanctions. Economic sanctions in particular are an instrument to be used with great discernment and must be subjected to strict legal and ethical criteria.

An economic embargo must be of limited duration and cannot be justified when the resulting effects are indiscriminate.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 499, 502, 507

Liberal

2015 Platform

Canada has a proud tradition of international leadership, from helping to create the United Nations after the Second World War, to the campaign against South African apartheid, to the international treaty to ban landmines.

Our plan will restore Canada as a leader in the world. Not only to provide greater security and economic growth for Canadians, but because Canada can make a real and valuable contribution to a more peaceful and prosperous world.

We will:

  • End the combat mission in Iraq
  • Recommit to supporting international peace operations through the UN
  • Make medical, engineering, and humanitarian abilities available to UN.
  • Make mission commanders, staff officers, and HQ units available to UN on a case-by-case basis.
  • Provide civilian police training operations, particularly Francophone.
  • Help train personnel for peace operations, monitor misconduct by peacekeepers. Contribute more to UN mediation, conflict prevention, and reconciliation programs.
  • Remain fully committed to Canada’s existing military contributions in Central and Eastern Europe, including participation in NATO and the multinational training mission in Ukraine

New Democrat

2019 Platform

We will

  • ensure that Canada is a force for peace.
  • support nuclear disarmament and recommit to peacekeeping
  • ensure that national and international commitments are adequately funded, with priority for peacekeeping
  • support a two-state solution for Israel and Palestine

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

The Conservative Party supports a foreign policy that protects Canada’s sovereignty and independence, promotes our national interests (political, economic and strategic), contributes to collective security and defence, promotes democratic principles and human rights, and assists in international development.

  • We believe that Canada's international relations, trade and foreign aid policies should advance the country's economic interests while promoting human rights and individual freedom.
  • We believe the government should integrate our foreign policy with policies on trade and national defence.
  • We Support membership in NATO and principle of collective security.
  • We Support NATO’s recommendation of commitment of at least 2% of GDP on national defence.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

The Green Party sees international law and its institutions as the roots of international justice and stability. We must never by-pass the requirement for a United Nations resolution before engaging militarily.

  • The Green Party will restore the capacity for superb diplomacy, a traditional Canadian strength.
  • We will increase our overseas development assistance and revamp the international development programmes within Global Affairs Canada (GAC) to focus more on developing green economies and on poverty alleviation.
  • We will expand our defence role in UN-led peacekeeping missions and in emergency and disaster relief and equip it accordingly.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Re-align our defence spending to increase our capacity and speed in delivering disaster assistance (e.g. through the DART − Disaster Assistance Rapid Response Team) and our contributions to UN peacekeeping forces and missions, and decrease our contributions to NATO war efforts
  • Play a lead role in establishing a standing UN Rapid Response Force;
  • Review Canada’s membership in military alliances including NATO and NORAD to ensure they are meeting Canada’s priorities of diplomacy, development, and defence;
  • Press urgently for global nuclear disarmament and the conversion of military industries in Canada and worldwide into peaceful and restorative industries;
  • Oppose the militarization of space;
  • Insist on the adherence to the Geneva Convention by Canada and its allies;
  • Advocate that responses to terrorism must be carried out within a framework consistent with international law.

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

 

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

Intelligence & internal security; terrorism

The Church’s view:

Terrorism is to be condemned in the most absolute terms. It shows complete contempt for human life and can never be justified, since the human person is always an end and never a means. Acts of terrorism strike at the heart of human dignity and are an offence against all humanity; there exists, therefore, a right to defend oneself from terrorism.

However, this right cannot be exercised in the absence of moral and legal norms, because the struggle against terrorists must be carried out with respect for human rights and for the principles of a State ruled by law. The identification of the guilty party must be duly proven, because criminal responsibility is always personal, and therefore cannot be extended to the religions, nations or ethnic groups to which the terrorists belong.

International cooperation in the fight against terrorist activity cannot be limited solely to repressive and punitive operations. It is essential that the use of force, even when necessary, be accompanied by a courageous and lucid analysis of the reasons behind terrorist attacks.

Also needed is a particular commitment on the political and educational levels in order to resolve, with courage and determination, the problems that in certain dramatic circumstances can foster terrorism: the recruitment of terrorists in fact is easier in situations where rights are trampled and injustices are tolerated over a long period of time.

It is a profanation and a blasphemy to declare oneself a terrorist in God's name… No religion may tolerate terrorism and much less preach it. Rather, religions must work together to remove the causes of terrorism and promote friendship among peoples.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 514, 511

Liberal

2015 Platform

  • Promised to create an all-party committee to monitor and oversee operations of all departments and agencies responsible for national security.

We will:

  • conduct a thorough review of existing measures to protect Canadians and our critical infrastructure from cyber-threats.Develop alternative legislation to Bill C-51, including guarantees of charter rights, and rights to protest and advocate;
  • require warrants for surveillance of Canadians;
  • require a statutory review of the full Anti-Terrorism Act after three years; and
  • create new Office of Community Outreach and Counter-radicalization Coordinator

New Democrat

2019 Platform

New Democrats will deal with threats to our national security, including foreign interference and espionage, terrorism and cybercrime, by working with our international allies, enhancing real-time oversight of security services, and fully respecting the privacy and Charter rights of all Canadians.

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

  • Gov’t must be positioned to deal with complex international security issues in order to protect our citizens and contribute to the broader responsibility. We are committed to ensuring that better cooperation among Canada’s intelligence and security agencies to more effectively protect Canadians against internal and external security and economic threats in a changing and unstable global environment.
  • Canada must not be a safe haven for international terrorist operatives.
  • Canada should support its allies by providing all necessary support to defeat the scourge of transnational terrorism.
  • Gov’t should all military, law enforcement resources and intelligence agencies to prevent attacks, disrupt criminal networks, and cut off avenues of financing for increasingly determined and sophisticated terrorist groups and individuals
  • Gov’t should continue to work with North American partners to coordinate efforts on security.
  • Revitalized Canadian Coast Guard should be part of the Ministry of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness.
  • Gov’t should reinstitute the Ports Police as a unit of the RCMP, and increase surveillance on the coasts and the Great Lakes.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

A fundamental obligation of government is the protection of public safety. The Green Party is wholly committed to ensuring the security of all Canadians, and we will remain vigilant in our opposition to those who would threaten the safety of our communities.

However, we agree with the majority of Canadians that true security within a democratic society will be gained from good governance and fair procedures that are administered according to the rule of law.

The Green Party views terrorism as an especially dangerous criminal offence and an aggressive, illegitimate political act. We believe that a responsible government will work diligently to track down and successfully prosecute these criminals as well as prevent terrorist acts by addressing the root causes of the crime. The focus must be peaceful assistance to local and international organizations working to resolve conflict, to protect local culture and sustainable practices, and to engage in the building of strong democratic institutions.

The Green Party is committed to ensuring our intelligence and law-enforcement agencies have adequate resources and the political leadership to deal effectively with these criminals.

The Green Party seeks security procedures that provide rigorous standards of procedural fairness and allow meaningful defences for all detainees. A responsible government cannot sacrifice human rights in the name of security or we will actually be opening the door for greater injustice and insecurity.

Green Party MPs will:

  • Introduce a Comprehensive Security Plan that will provide coordinated direction to the RCMP, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, the Canada Border Services Agency, the Coast Guard, and Foreign Affair and International Trade Canada.
  • Provide CSIS, RCMP, and the Canada Border Services Agency with sufficient resources to conduct effective operations involving the gathering of intelligence, and the detention and prosecution of those who threaten our security;
  • Ensure that individuals held under security certificates are given access to legal assistance and the right to trial within a reasonable period of time, subject to prompt and fair review by an independent and impartial court
  • Ensure that all detainees are treated with respect for their human rights and not subjected to any kind of torture, either physical or mental, for any reason;
  • Support the strengthening of regulations governing the practices of immigration consultants and provide adequate resources for their enforcement;
  • Enact legislation to allow victims of terrorist acts to pursue compensation through the courts, tracking down the financial assets of the responsible organizations;
  • Develop effective programs to prevent the ‘radicalization’ of Canadian youth, identifying those drawn to extremist movements and engaging clerics and communities where terrorist networks have been known to recruit. Part of these solutions will include better employment programs for Canadian youth.

Christian Heritage

2019 Platform

A firm hand must be taken to protect Canadians from those who do not value our democratic values and who may pose a threat to Canada’s national security.

  • We will open an investigation into allegations by the United Nations Human Rights Committee of Canadian officials cooperating with foreign agencies known to use torture

Peoples' Party

  • No known published position.

Issue

International response to refugees, forced migration, human trafficking

The Church’s view:

The solemn proclamation of human rights is contradicted by a painful reality of violations, wars and violence of every kind, in the first place, genocides and mass deportations, the spreading on a virtual worldwide dimension of ever new forms of slavery such as trafficking in human beings… Even in countries with democratic forms of government, these rights are not always fully respected.

The principle of humanity inscribed in the conscience of every person and all peoples includes the obligation to protect civil populations from the effects of war…

A particular category of war victim is formed by refugees, forced by combat to flee the places where they habitually live and to seek refuge in foreign countries. The Church is close to them not only with her pastoral presence and material support, but also with her commitment to defend their human dignity: Concern for refugees must lead us to reaffirm and highlight universally recognized human rights, and to ask that the effective recognition of these rights be guaranteed to refugees”.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§ 158, 515

Liberal

2015 Platform

Canadians are open, accepting, and generous – qualities that should be reflected in Canada’s response to those seeking refuge from conflict and war. Our communities are strengthened when we come together to help those in need. Canada’s government should do the same.

  • We will expand Canada’s intake of refugees from Syria by 25,000 through immediate government sponsorship. We will also work with private sponsors to accept even more. To do this, we will invest $250 million, including $100 million this fiscal year, to increase refugee processing, as well as sponsorship and settlement services capacity in Canada.
  • We will also provide a new contribution of $100 million this fiscal year to the United Nations High Commission for Refugees to support critical relief activities in the region of Syria.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

As the world experiences an unprecedented refugee crisis, Canada also has a vital role to play in resettling people forced out of their homes.

  • We will work to eliminate Canada’s immigration backlog, and work with Canadians to resettle refugees in our communities, ensuring they are given the support they need to build successful lives and new homes here in Canada.
  • We will also make the right choice to promote safety, security, and efficiency by suspending the Safe Third Country agreement with the United States, allowing people to make asylum claims a official border crossings.

Conservative

2019 Policy Declaration

We are proud of Canada’s humanitarian tradition of providing safe haven to those who have had to flee their homeland, and welcome refugees to Canada.

  • Government should promote the integrity and fairness of our refugee determination system, and should ensure that decisions are made expeditiously and with respect for due process and the safety of Canadians.
  • Support promotion of democratic and responsible government in areas of the world where refugees originate
  • Call for proactive response to reduce human trafficking abroad, through sanctions and legal interruptions of human smuggling intended for Canada
  • Safe Third Country with US should be renegotiated to close gaps that allow illegal entry into Canada.
  • Supports re-establishment of Office of Religious Freedom, to promote universal right of religious freedom and advocate for prosecuted religious minorities everywhere.

We believe the government should take strong action to combat human trafficking and should take a lead in developing international agreements and protocols against human trafficking.

  • Government should recognize the importance of an ethical dimension in foreign policy and advance the values broadly supported by Canadians.
  • We believe that Canada's international relations, trade and foreign aid policies should advance the country's economic interests while promoting human rights and individual freedom.
  • We believe the government should integrate our foreign policy with policies on trade and national defence.
  • Gov’t should work with Territorial governments to assert and maintain Canadian Sovereignty in the Arctic through integrated resource management.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

The Green Party will restore the capacity for superb diplomacy, a traditional Canadian strength. We will increase our overseas development assistance and revamp the international development programmes within Global Affairs Canada (GAC) to focus more on developing green economies and on poverty alleviation. We will expand our defence role in UN-led peacekeeping missions and in emergency and disaster relief and equip it accordingly.

Immigrants and refugees come to Canada in search of a safer, more fulfilling life for themselves and their families, and to be full participants in Canadian society.

It is estimated that climate change now claims the lives of over 315 000 people annually and is expected to create 700 million environmental refugees by mid-century. If unchecked, it will reduce the Earth’s human carrying capacity to less than a billion by century’s end. Less than a tenth of humanity may survive unless we act now.

We also recognize that hundreds of people arrive every year in Canada illegally through the work of criminal organizations. Women and girls are trafficked into Canada and forced into prostitution in our cities. Although steps have been taken in recent years to combat this growing problem, more needs to be done. We must send clear signals that human trafficking will not be tolerated. We must provide sufficient resources to law enforcement agents and ensure we have more success in discovering, arresting, and prosecuting those who commit these terrible crimes.

Christian Heritage

2019 Platform

We advocate increased penalties in the Criminal Code for those convicted of human smuggling

Peoples' Party

2019 Platform

Canada needs a common-sense foreign policy focused on the security and prosperity of Canadians, not an ideological approach that compromises our interests.

The People’s Party will:

  • Continue to work closely with our allies to maintain a peaceful international order, but will not get involved in foreign conflicts unless we have a compelling strategic interest in doing so.
  • Prioritize relations with our main trading and defence partner, and work whoever occupies the White House, to reinforce our friendship and cooperation.
  • Withdraw from all UN commitments, including the Global Compact on Migrations and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, that threaten our sovereignty, and reduce our presence in UN institutions to a minimum.
  • Save billions of dollars by phasing out development aid, and focus Canadian international assistance exclusively on emergency humanitarian action in cases such as health crises, major conflicts and natural disasters

Issue

Humanitarian Aid

The Church’s view:

It is therefore essential to seek out the causes underlying bellicose conflicts, especially those connected with structural situations of injustice, poverty and exploitation, which require intervention so that they may be removed. For this reason, another name for peace is development. Just as there is a collective responsibility for avoiding war, so too there is a collective responsibility for promoting development.

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, § 498

Liberal

2015 Platform

  • We will refocus our development assistance on helping the poorest and most vulnerable.
  • We will consult with Canadian and international aid organizations to review current policies and funding frameworks that will refocus our aid priorities on poverty reduction.
  • We will ensure that all allocated funds are spent.
  • We will ensure that Canada’s valuable aid initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) is driven by evidence and outcomes, not ideology. Closing existing gaps in reproductive rights and health care can and will save lives. We will cover the full range of reproductive health services as part of MNCH initiatives.

New Democrat

2019 Platform

New Democrats believe that Canadian interests are best served by a strong and principled foreign policy based on human rights, multilateralism and the best interests of global peace and security. We will stand up to belligerent and aggressive countries to defend everyday people and Canadian values on the international stage

We will:

  •  Commit to supporting International development by contributing 0.7 percent of Gross National income to foreign aid.
  • Commit to UN 2030 development goals for poverty reduction, decent work, and rights of indigenous peoples
  • Contribute more to Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria
  • Promote gender equality and women’s rights abroad, including access to education and participation in peace negotiations
  • Enforce standards of corporate social responsibility
  • Assist low-income countries in responding to climate change

Conservative

2018 Policy Declaration

The Conservative Party believes in the inherent benefits of development assistance to Canadians and the world. Development assistance must be anchored by expression of Canadian values and pursued within the context of Canada’s strategic interests as defined by an integrated foreign policy.

  • We are committed to strengthening Canada's record in foreign aid. Guiding legislation should include a clear mandate for development assistance; mechanisms for policy coherence, monitoring, accountability and reporting to Parliament; and enhanced public transparency.
  • Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) should be authorized to monitor and report on the expenditure and implementation of all assistance funds to ensure it meets the objectives of poverty reduction, respect for human rights and good governance, as confirmed by an annual report.
  • CIDA should advise Canadian industry when and where it is committing aid dollars. This will ensure that Canadian businesses have the opportunity to bid on the tenders
  • Abortion should be explicitly excluded from material aid and child health programs provided by Canada, particularly as it is extremely divisive and often illegal.

Green

Vision Green, 2019

It has been said that the greatness of a country is best expressed in how it takes care of its most vulnerable citizens. Rights also entail taking responsibility as an individual within his or her community and promoting and protecting these rights at the national level, for the abuse of rights anywhere in the world impacts our own security and sense of dignity as human beings.

The Green Party sees international law and its institutions as the roots of international justice and stability. We must never by-pass the requirement for a United Nations resolution before engaging militarily.

We will:

  • Increase our overseas development assistance and revamp the international development programmes within Global Affairs Canada (GAC).
  • Strive to meet the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals for elimination of poverty by 2030, by re-committing to increasing Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) to 0.7% of our gross domestic product (GDP).
  • Play a lead role in establishing a standing UN Rapid Response Force with a mandate for peacekeeping and environmental restoration in both international crisis situations and domestic catastrophes like floods, earthquakes, storms, and fires;
  • We will ensure our commitments for the provision of HIV/AIDS retroviral drugs for Africa is fulfilled, and that Africa will be a significant focus of our development priorities.
  • Focus Canada’s development aid efforts and economic investment in the specific key areas that: foster alternative fuels and energy sources
  • focus on agriculture sectors that provide for food sovereignty through both subsistence farming and domestic commercial farming methods that are in keeping with green environmentally sound and gender equality principles;
  • increase bilateral trade, where possible, to facilitate the export of value added products from small island economies; Support and strengthen cooperation with regional organizations to further the goal of regional independence and sovereignty.
  • Advance the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, and ensure its principles are at the core of Canadian foreign policy;

Christian Heritage

  • No known published position.

Peoples' Party

2019 Platform

Canada needs a common-sense foreign policy focused on the security and prosperity of Canadians, not an ideological approach that compromises our interests.

The People’s Party will:

  • Withdraw from all UN commitments, including the Global Compact on Migrations and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, that threaten our sovereignty, and reduce our presence in UN institutions to a minimum.
  • Save billions of dollars by phasing out development aid, and focus Canadian international assistance exclusively on emergency humanitarian action in cases such as health crises, major conflicts and natural disasters.